On the road to achieving technological independence, what problems do we have to solve? How far is the future from us?
Pinwan cooperates with “My Questions and Answers” and invites everyone to have a chat:
In which core technology areas have we completed “domestic substitution”? What are the future directions? Together, let us ask for answers from science.

Combining so many years of personal observations, gains, and thoughts from doctoral studies to scientific researchers to founding software companies for more than half a year, let me talk about some of my views on “domestic substitution” in this field: why and how to develop domestic substitutions The CAD CAE (including its sub-categories in the creative field) software market is a market with a high GDP per capita. There are many research reports in various industries. I will not be a repeater. For example, the top Internet companies can achieve a market value of several trillion and have 100,000 employees. The leading CAD and CAE companies have a market value of hundreds of billions, and the per capita market value of thousands of employees may be 2-10 times that of Internet companies. Furthermore, CAD and CAE, including their subdivisions in the creative field, are like draughts for the business and survival of the downstream fields, and they control the lifeline of downstream enterprises and product development to a certain extent. Things like this will basically not happen, but the increased difficulty of research and development indirectly caused by monopoly and the low industrial structure have become indisputable obstacles in the current stage of development. Third, computing power, cloud computing, and scientific computing tools are developing in-depth in more human-related fields. The future market, whether it is a business model or potential business potential, cannot be directly borrowed from the existing market. To a certain extent, this has put my country’s late-comer industry on the same starting line as foreign first-mover enterprises, and has formed (from a new perspective) an opportunity for the development of domestic substitution. As a practitioner in a related field, I will also talk about how to truly develop a “domestic substitution”. I think there are several levels of this substitution: it can be realized and foreign The same function of the software can form a tool that is as easy to use as foreign software. In terms of performance and results, it surpasses foreign competitors. Complete an entire landing project from beginning to end. There are a large number of domestic and foreign projects that prefer to use the software developed by the US military when developing projects. It’s possible to choose your software, or even conversely criticize “Fuck, American-made software just doesn’t work.” This first point is actually easy to complete, so simple that it doesn’t need to be a piece of “software”, a piece of code, an open source project, Or the ancestral code of the major domestic mechanics or simulation laboratories can complete this task. If it is a case of foreign software calculation, domestic software can do the same. It is not a difficult task. As for the second point, it is more difficult than the first point. We must know that the purpose of CAD, CAE tools, and computer is A, not the protagonist. The protagonist is the final design, engineering. Therefore, a software (referring to any code) system that cannot directly serve these two purposes cannot be called software. In order to achieve this goal, on the basis of 1, a lot of upstream and downstream tools need to be built to be usable and easy to use. The third point is actually easy, but it is not easy to put it after the second point. The word “easy” is because it is easy for you to develop a special-purpose program, which is fully optimized for parallelism and coupling between programs, so that the computational efficiency and effect of the entire program are better than those of foreign competitors, but even the same program , Once the code system is decoupled and placed in the perspective of the software system to run. Efficiency declines rapidly. Therefore, you first have to be a software that can perform similar functions as competing products, and then you can compare performance and effects. After completing the third point, in fact, a software has just acquired a technical competitive advantage, which is far from a commercial advantage. The next step is to verify that, like foreign competitors, how can you complete a project from start to finish? For example: if your software is designed to design a car, then you have to fully enter its development link in a vehicle development project. Through the use of your software system, you can help complete the design of the vehicle, and make performance and cost. There was a reduction, and in the end related companies built this car. At this point, it is the first time this software has completed its toddler’s first step. Although the main company’s software is not made for cars, it is also at this stage in the relevant field (not to be disclosed). Sometimes, this step is even done on your own! (Just like Unreal Engine used its own engine to make games for self-certification back then) After completing step 4, you can conduct commercial exploration and try the fifth step. You need to ask people to use your own software as much as possible. , Drinking with countless purchasing managers. When step 5 is basically completed, it is considered to have a market advantage. At this time, it is very likely that the annual profit generated can just cover the R&D expenditure. If other circumstances are not taken into account, this step can be regarded as the preliminary completion of the task of domestic substitution. As for the sixth step, the relevant system is truly from domestic substitution to an irreplaceable and complete path, which means that this system has been able to provide unique solutions to very individual problems at this time, and has its own excellent competitive advantage. , And these advantages are enough to support a market value of hundreds of billions of dollars. So follow this list I wrote. Do you think we have reached the fifth step in which core technology areas?

zhiwo

By zhiwo

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helpmekim
7 months ago

Over the past 40 years of reform and opening up, my country has ushered in a period of rapid development. The fields of education, medical care, industry, and science and technology are gradually catching up with developed countries such as Europe and the United States. Especially in the field of science and technology, our country is developing at an amazing speed! In many fields of science and technology, my country has completely caught up with developed countries and achieved independent technological innovation. Mainly manifested in the following scientific and technological fields: 1. UHV power transmission technology my country’s UHV power transmission technology is well-deserved in the world. Currently, it is the only country in the world that fully masters UHV power transmission and is in an absolute leading position in the UHV industry. Transmission lines of 800 kV and 1,000 kV abound in our country, but few other countries in the world have such high voltage transmission lines, and transmission lines above 1,000 kV are also erected in some parts of our country, so We have an unparalleled lead in UHV transmission systems. 2. Quantum technology Quantum technology is considered to be the promoter of the next generation of technological revolution. my country has also made great efforts in the research of quantum technology. Now my country has launched the world’s first quantum satellite, the world’s first storage of single photons. Quantum memory was also born in my country, and has made remarkable achievements in quantum communication and quantum computing. Some technological achievements have been applied, which are basically not available in other countries. When quantum technology can be applied on a large scale, Our country will take the lead in development. 3. Supercomputers. Nowadays, our country’s supercomputers have been the number one in the world for several years, first Tianhe No. 1, Tianhe No. 2, and then the light of Shenwei Taihu Lake, which is the No. 1 in the world. From our country’s Yinhe No. 1 Since the beginning of supercomputers, supercomputing technology has made great progress in our country over the past ten years. The top ten supercomputing were always dominated by computers from the United States, Japan and European countries. However, our country has now occupied the top position for several years. And there are even more powerful supercomputing in the development. It must be said that this is an impressive achievement. Although it is not fully ahead in terms of chips and storage, overall the world’s number one in supercomputing is well-deserved. 4. High-speed rail technology High-speed rail technology is considered a business card of my country’s technology export. As a rising star in this area of ​​technology, my country has now achieved the world’s lead in many aspects of the high-speed rail field. my country now operates a high-speed railway of 22,000 kilometers, accounting for more than 2/3 of the world’s total high-speed rail mileage. I have to say , This is an amazing achievement. 5. Nuclear power generation technology. Nuclear power generation is considered to be another business card of my country’s technology exports. For example, the construction of Hualong No. 1 has the highest safety in the world in the same field, indicating that many related technologies in my country’s nuclear power have achieved the world’s leading position. Even the British began to look for us to build nuclear power plants. 6. Wind power technology Wind power is a kind of clean energy. my country’s installed wind power capacity has reached 34.1% of the world’s, surpassing the United States and Europe. In fact, it is not only in terms of quantity, but also the best wind power equipment in the world. Wind power companies are also purchasing technology and equipment from China. 7. Solar power generation technology In addition to having the world’s largest installed capacity of solar power generation, my country is also a world leader in the research of next-generation solar power generation technologies. 8. Hydropower station construction technology Everyone knows that my country has built many large-scale hydropower stations, and this technology has been exported. On the basis of hydropower station construction, we are undoubtedly leading the way. The construction and use of every large-scale hydropower station are among them. Many fields have set world records. 9. Laser weapon technology was discovered by China in 1990 and applied to laser anti-missile weapons; the United States worked hard for 15 years to develop KBBF crystals in 2016; but China’s new generation of crystals has been successfully developed and once again leads the world in the field of KBBF technology . 10. The ultra-high-speed wind tunnel ground wind tunnel experimental technology represents the strategic development strength in the aerospace field. A generation of wind tunnel technology determines the level of research and development of a generation of aircraft, and China is currently leading. 11. Controllable nuclear fusion technology. This technology is considered to be clean and pollution-free nuclear energy. Nuclear power generation will eventually move closer to controllable nuclear fusion technology. my country’s tokamak device has achieved phased success, although it cannot It is completely leading, but some technical aspects are already quite solid. If the technical research can be completed in recent years, then we can even get rid of the international controllable nuclear fusion device set up in Europe, and be the first to build an operational type in the world. Controllable nuclear fusion device. 12. Iron and steel smelting technology my country is the world’s largest steel smelting country. There are many patented technologies in steel smelting, and it is in the world’s leading position. Super steel and various special steels can be smelted in my country, but other countries basically can’t do it. 13. Nanotechnology The concept of nanotechnology, which was very popular in the past few years, has now been widely used in production and life. my country is also ahead of the world in many fields of nanotechnology. 14. Bridge building technology my country’s road and bridge construction has made rapid progress in the past 20 years. Many netizens lamented that they opened the World Bridge Network and thought they had logged on to the wrong website, because China almost took over the construction of the world’s best bridge, such as the world’s tallest. Almost all of the top ten of the bridge are Chinese. At least 15 of the top 20 are Chinese. Seventy to eighty of the top 100 are Chinese. Such a domineering statistical table is really rare. 15. Tunnel technology is the same as bridge building technology. my country’s tunnel excavation technology is also the same. Our performance on the world’s tunnel construction ranking table is also very domineering. Moreover, my country’s subway construction has entered a boom period, and the length of underground tunnels will grow rapidly. If we only measure whether we are leading in quantity, our industry and products can be ranked first in the world even more. For example, the output of agricultural, animal husbandry and fishery products can basically be ranked first in the world, and there are many varieties of agricultural products. And technology research and development can also rank first in the world, such as hybrid rice, etc. In addition, the output of clothing, chemical fiber, steel, cement, and coal is also the world’s first. my country’s science and technology will get better and stronger in the future! Every year in the future, more science and technology will lead the world!

heloword
7 months ago

This problem is embarrassing. With 11 years of experience in machinery, the common plastic composite materials of hydraulic, electrical and pneumatic track bearings are currently mostly foreign brands. Hydraulic: Rexroth, Parker, Sun. Electrical: Siemens, ABB, Omron, Schneider, Panasonic, Mitsubishi Electric Delta, pneumatic: Festo, smc, Airtac. Track screw: skf, silver, tbi, thk. Bearings: skf, fag, nsk, Timken. Robots: Four families. Sealed gas pump fans are all foreign or Taiwanese basic components that can be used by domestic brands. This is the gap in the entire industry, the basic gap, and the personal feeling that the foundation is still going backwards. Put more energy on basic disciplines, especially basic applications, such as material molding, heat treatment, processing, and quality control. Knowledge can not be integrated into products instead of blindly pursuing innovation.

helpyme
7 months ago

As far as the three core technology fields of database, operating system, and chip are sometimes involved in work, there will be no peace if they are not made in China or are independent. But now, some areas are undergoing changes. In terms of databases, the OceanBase database under Ant Financial has begun to gradually replace overseas brands. OceanBase was founded in 2010, based on a distributed architecture and general-purpose servers, to achieve financial-level reliability and data consistency, and own 100% intellectual property rights. In May 2020, OceanBase broke the TPC-C world record it created in 2019 with an online transaction processing performance of 707 million tpmC. At present, Ocean Base has undertaken all core links of Ant Group, and served a large number of enterprises in the financial, operators, government public services and other industries. In the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, Construction Bank, Bank of Nanjing, Bank of Xi’an, Changshu Rural Commercial Bank, Bank of Suzhou, Guangdong Agricultural Bank, etc. Credit, PICC Health Insurance, China Merchants Securities, China Property & Casualty Insurance, Sinopec, Shenzhen Provident Fund, Zhejiang Mobile, Shandong Mobile, and many other industry organizations went online to help customers quickly realize business value. In order to facilitate the transfer of other databases to OceanBase, a convenient data migration service is also provided. Supports multiple relational databases, big data, message queues and other data terminals and OceanBase data replication, with online data migration, real-time data synchronization and incremental data subscription capabilities. In terms of operating system, Hongmeng HarmonyOS is a microkernel-based distributed intelligent terminal operating system with its own intellectual property rights created by Huawei for the era of Internet of Everything. It provides a unified language for the intelligence, interconnection and collaboration of different devices. Version 1.0 was released in 2019, and in 2021 it is still in its infancy, but it has begun to grow. In an environment of extreme suppression, the birth of Hongmeng will be difficult, but Hongmeng has opened the prelude to permanently changing the global structure of the operating system. In addition, Baidu’s Apollo autonomous driving operating system (Apollo) in the field of autonomous driving, released version 1.0 in 2017, is iteratively upgraded every year. It is also one of Baidu’s strategic commanding heights. Although Apollo does not have the distinctive features of the battle of survival as Hongmeng, but at least a place for Chinese companies on the future-oriented autonomous driving track. Regarding the chip, it is a pity that there is no chip yet, at least it is difficult to find a fundamental way to break the game within a long period of time in units of years. As far as AI chips are concerned, companies like Alibaba, Baidu, Huawei, and AI chip companies have all launched their own design AI chips, but just designing chips cannot fundamentally solve the current biggest dilemma: manufacturing and materials, especially chips. Manufacturing equipment is constrained by others. This is where we need to focus on breakthroughs in the future. “Every day is over,” time is the biggest variable. Look at the words engraved by the Xinjiang Construction Corps in the lofty mountains: Seize the day.

sina156
7 months ago

We went from imitation to production to start to innovate, but others have been in high-end research for too long, and the foundation is too strong, so we can’t replace the precision chip issue for the time being. And the former Soviet Union model of Russia is worth learning. They can innovate their own thick parts without relying on the United States in the high-end space station and the aerospace field. Therefore, we can go with two legs, while making our own products without relying on too sophisticated American products, while continuing to negotiate with the United States to be able to exchange products we need, we can avoid detours. But after all, we still have to recognize reality and discard illusions. The United States’ defense against us has been fully deployed since the 1990s. They treat us as imaginary enemies, not the views of one or two politicians, but the entire elite team, even if they are different factions. They are consistent in their views of us. Therefore, we must cultivate our own innovative talents, encourage children to learn science and love science from an early age, instead of chasing the so-called acting stars, we must cultivate the idea that scientists are true stars, so as to promote our productivity and development.

yahoo898
7 months ago

After decades of development, we have really climbed many mountains! 1. Mobile phone. Let’s think about it carefully, whether the mobile phones we used were basically Nokia 10 years ago. At that time, when we asked others if they had a mobile phone, we all directly asked if you had a Nokia. In the era of smart phones, did we hear about Apple or Samsung at that time? Samsung basically dominated the Chinese market! Let’s take a look now, the three domestic mobile phone brands, Huawei, Xiaomi, oppo, occupy the lead. This is the domestic alternative in the field of mobile phones! 2. Communication field. 2020 is known as the first year of 5G commercial use. Because my country’s Huawei takes the lead in the field of 5G communications, for the first time it can become the rule maker in the communication protocol setting. In the era of 2g, 3g, and 4g, we are only users and managed! This is to break the technical barriers set by the Western world against China. Completed domestic replacement! 3. Intelligent system. Intelligence has always been a characteristic of American companies. But now whether it is Huawei’s autonomous driving system or Huawei’s Hongmeng os ecology, both are in the forefront of the world. Another domestic substitution was completed. We still need to climb the mountains continuously, but it is undeniable that we have already climbed many mountains. In the future, we will also occupy a sky in the fields of aerospace, aircraft carrier battle groups, chips, etc.!

leexin
7 months ago

I am sorry! I can’t answer this question!
Say something that the public loves to see, and of course you can get a wave of likes and comments. However, those are meaningless.
In other more high-precision fields, everything must be subject to the official release.
Sorry, this, I really can’t answer in detail.

greatword
7 months ago

In the field of IVD in vitro diagnostics, domestic products basically have the same level of four companies (Roche, Abbott, Siemens, Beckman), and thousands of companies are located in the upper, middle and lower reaches. However, the four major moats are too deep (medical devices are all over the grassroots), otherwise It has long been a domestic substitute.

loveyou
7 months ago

my country’s leading core areas include: Internet technology, shipbuilding, logistics, high-grade roads, high-speed rail, quantum computing, desert greening and afforestation, etc. Future directions: aerospace, space exploration, space mining, basic education, new energy applications, deep sea mining, military manufacturing, Internet reality content applications and outer space communications, etc. The premise of everything is basic education.

strongman
7 months ago

A piece of software has a longer and harder path than hardware. However, what I am personally curious about is: if a universal Chinese low-level language can be used for software design, will there be a qualitative leap in pure design with Chinese creativity?

stockin
7 months ago

The jewel in the crown refers to aero engines and gas turbines. The core machine of these two things is the same. Why is it called the Pearl? Compared with ordinary machines, the core machine works in a high-speed, high-temperature and high-load environment, and it has higher requirements and difficulties in all aspects.

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