Other answers have already mentioned a lot of reasons why the sky is so big that you can’t fly casually~ Let’s talk about a practical example to understand the impact of natural conditions~ In this example, the planes are crowded in an “air corridor” over the Atlantic Ocean. in. Secret fear warning ahead! Today’s wind is very noisy! Why is this “gale” noisy? Can actually affect the choice of route! 1. The “highway” in the sky, it is Ta that makes the flight faster. It starts with the discovery of meteorologists. Japanese meteorologists Oishi and Saburo discovered a “highway” in the sky, which allows planes to travel faster and with greater capacity. △Oishi and Saburo|Between 1923 and 1925, Oishi and Saburo used weather balloons to track their positions and speeds, and made nearly 1,300 observations of what he called high air currents, and made new discoveries. △ The rapid flow path from Japan to the United States. In a series of observation experiments on high air currents, Oishi and Saburo observed that the meteorological balloon would enter an area with extremely fast wind speed when it reached an altitude of about 10,000 meters. Weather balloons can fly at speeds of up to 300 kilometers per hour in this area and can reach the United States in about 3 days. Unfortunately, because the results were published in Esperanto (a man-made language invented and created in 1887 to eliminate language barriers in human international communication), his findings were not noticed by the world, and most people did not know it at the time. The existence of “river” (later called jet stream) in the sky. △Balloon bombs. During the Second World War, Japan used these high-altitude winds to launch thousands of hydrogen balloons with bombs in an attempt to bomb the United States. According to the plan, the balloon bomb must remain at a height of 10058 meters after it is lifted off. Because only at this height can we take advantage of the eastward airflow. Hidetoshi Arakawa designed an automatic control system driven by an altimeter to discard ballast or discharge hydrogen. When the height of the balloon is lower than 10058 meters, the sandbag will automatically fall off and raise the balloon; when the height of the balloon is higher than 10058 meters, the valve of the balloon airbag will automatically discharge hydrogen gas to lower the height. In 1945, one of the bombs killed 6 people in Blaye, Oregon, including 5 children and a priest’s pregnant wife. At that time, one of the victims picked up one of the explosives without knowing it, causing the disaster, the “Blay bombing.” As early as 1931 before the Bligh bombing, the U.S. military also speculated that the rapids might exist. At that time, pilot Willie Post flew from Burbank, California to Cleveland, Ohio. The plane flew more than 2,000 miles at an altitude of 30,000 feet in just 7 hours. At lower altitudes, this kind of flight usually takes more than 12 hours. The subsequent Bligh bombing made the United States more confirm that the “river” in the sky was real. Scholars named this phenomenon a jet stream. 2. How is the jet stream formed? Now that we know the existence of rapids, how did it form? The reasons may be complicated. We know that the temperature difference in the atmosphere can produce a difference in air pressure. Together with the rotation of the earth, these factors will force the air to move around the earth, and the air flows to form wind. The so-called jet stream is a strong wind belt from west to east with a height of 8-12km and a speed of 320km per hour. The length can be thousands of kilometers, and the width can be hundreds of kilometers. Jet streams flow along the boundary between hot and cold air. Because these hot and cold air boundaries are most obvious in winter, jet streams are the strongest in winter in the northern and southern hemispheres. The rotation of the earth is an important cause of the jet stream. We can see that the rotation of the earth divides this circulation into the three units shown in the figure above. The areas near 30°N/S and 50°-60°N/S are the areas with the largest temperature changes. The greater the temperature difference between the two locations, the greater the wind. Therefore, the areas near 30°N/S and 50°-60°N/S (that is, the mid-latitude area) are also the areas with the strongest high-rise winds. The 50°-60°N/S area is the location of the polar jet, while the subtropical jet is located at about 30°N. The height of the jet stream varies from 6.4 to 12.8 kilometers, and the top speed can reach 442 kilometers per hour. The actual appearance of jets is not only caused by the rotation of the earth, but also the result of the interaction of many variables, such as the position of the high and low pressure system, cold and warm air, and seasonal changes. They meander on the earth, incline and rise in altitude/latitude, sometimes split into vortices, sometimes even disappear completely, and reappear in other places after a while.


By zhiwo

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7 months ago

The main part of the route is the shortest connection between two destinations. “Taking the airport vicinity” as the standard, the sky is not so big, flying and landing can only wait for collision. As for what you didn’t say: avoiding by radar. If you have such thoughts, you can only say that you think too much. One issue of Air Catastrophe talked about “the sky is so vast and the world is so big, I want to go and see” examples of collisions. Specifically, it is the inaccurate positioning technology of civil aviation in the United States in the 1960s. The so-called route is roughly through the navigation point. When flying near the Grand Canyon, the pilot is willing to go around and let passengers look at the Grand Canyon from the sky, and then there are 2 The airliner crashed.

7 months ago

In the early days, for the convenience of navigation, the equiangular course was generally adopted, that is, the magnetic angle between the departure place and the destination was measured, and then as long as the flight course was kept constant, the destination could be reached. At this time, the track is on the map. The projection of is a straight line. However, with the development of navigation technology, the great-circle route has been adopted, and the projection of the great-circle route on the map is a curve. As shown above, the Great Circle Route on the map looks like a curve, but the actual distance is much shorter than the straight Rhumb Line.

7 months ago

To answer this question from an unpopular point of view, the route of the aircraft is derived from the arrangements and planning of their own airspace by various countries. In human terms, you must follow my path when you come to my site. Otherwise, you do not respect this arrangement of your own airspace planning. Rights stem from the concept of national airspace sovereignty defined in the Paris Convention of 1919, that is, each country holds sovereignty over its territories and airspace over its territorial sea. Everyone knows that sovereignty must not be infringed upon. Sovereignty is the bottom line maintained by any country. The original sovereignty is limited to territories. In Malcolm.N.Shaw’s classic work, “International Law”, sovereignty is only linked to territory. A country can only claim sovereignty on its own territory. Later, in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, countries reached a consensus that coastal states within 12 nautical miles off the coastline are classified as territorial waters. Territorial concept

7 months ago

The contracting states recognize that each country has complete and exclusive sovereignty over the air space above its territory. “Since then, airspace has been the same as the concept of territory. Any act of entering the airspace of another country without permission within the sovereignty of a country is an infringement of the sovereignty of another country, and the rules of the airspace are stricter than that of the territorial sea because the territorial sea can still have the right to pass harmlessly. (Innocent passage) The main reason why airspace is absolutely forbidden to enter without permission is that during World War II, countries were frightened by air warfare. Air supremacy is far more important than territorial waters. So when the sovereignty issue is resolved, countries can do whatever they want with their aircraft How can the aircraft fly? It’s true. Look at the application of Article 11 of the “Chicago Convention” Air Regulations. “Under the conditions of compliance with the provisions of this Convention, a Contracting State concerning the entry or departure of aircraft engaged in international voyages Its territory or the laws and regulations governing the operation or navigation of such aircraft within its territory shall apply to aircraft of all Contracting States regardless of nationality. Such aircraft shall, when entering or leaving the territory of that country or within its territory, Comply with this law and regulation. “

7 months ago

Chihiro said that there is no way in the world, and there is a way when there are more people walking. But why would there be a way if there are more people walking? Why do so many people have to go to the same place? After all, this place is convenient, labor-saving and time-saving. Why do people go high-speed? Why do people build roads and elevated highways? Just to save time, or to save fuel. So when we navigate, the route is as short as possible, and try not to bend around. The same goes for flights, and airplanes also burn fuel. In the end, everyone chooses the shortest route in order to burn as little fuel as possible. With more people to choose, there will naturally be routes. Moreover, the plane not only has a route, it also stipulates how to go, but also has to distinguish the altitude. Otherwise, it is easy to collide, even if it is not a route, if there is a crossing and the altitude is the same, it will collide. Although after some air crashes, the plane has an anti-collision system, if you do not specify the route and everyone flies indiscriminately, this will cause you to find that many planes are very close to you. What do you do at that moment? ? Then it becomes a tram problem

7 months ago

Because the sky is not as wide as it seems, there is a real chance of a collision if you don’t take the course. In fact, commercial aviation has just started to operate aircraft for a period of time. Although there are scheduled routes, as long as the passengers can be sent to their destinations, they can be flown according to the wishes of the pilots. When the aviation mode of transportation first appeared, many models had not got rid of the idea of military design, and the operation cost was very high. Therefore, in order to make a profit, airlines are rushing to introduce packaging methods to turn air transportation into an upper-class travel mode, such as providing uniformed pilots and beautiful stewardess smiling services, high-end food and so on. Another way to attract passengers is that if there is a landscape suitable for overlooking near the route, the pilots will often deviate from the route and take a detour to feast their eyes. This method was effective and gradually spread in the industry until June 30, 1956.

7 months ago

Airlines want to save fuel. The earth is round, so the intercontinental route must take the great circle distance (starting from a point A on the sphere to another point B on the sphere, the length of the shortest path. Generally speaking, any two points A and B on the sphere can be connected to the ball The center determines the only great circle, this great circle is called the Riemann circle, and the length of the shorter arc connecting these two points on the great circle is the great circle distance.) The earth is not a regular sphere, so the specific formula has to be revised. On the other hand, since 70% of the earth’s surface is covered by the ocean, there must be an alternate airport in case of an aircraft accident. This factor also needs to be considered when planning a route.

7 months ago

This is the same reason why cars go on the road. We all know that when driving a car on the ground, we must abide by the traffic rules in order to avoid traffic accidents. In the same way, the aircraft must follow the planned route. As the fastest means of transportation, an airplane has a very strong impact during the flight. Even the ground parking area has to leave a long parking section for it to buffer, and this is already when the airplane is decelerating. In some areas, the planes are relatively dense. If the planes do not take the route, there will be confusion. It is extremely likely that two planes will collide head-on during the flight, causing the plane to be damaged and crashed. Arrange a fixed route for the aircraft so that the aircraft will not disturb each other when they fly. In addition, if the aircraft does not take the route, in case the aircraft has an accident, it is necessary to find a way to get in touch with the ground, and the ground will stop all the aircraft on the route. This explains the importance of the route. If you follow the route, the people on the ground will know the route of the aircraft. Although the sky is vast, for the safety of flying, it is not possible to change the course at will.

7 months ago

You are not the only plane flying in the sky, there are many other planes. In order to ensure safety, a safe distance must be maintained between each aircraft. Sometimes some aircraft have higher priority and must obey the dispatch. Tiangong is not always beautiful, and we must find ways to avoid situations triggered by weather conditions. A line segment drawn directly on the map is not necessarily the shortest distance. Considering that there are various no-fly zones due to map projection, in fact, there must be detours. There are some reasons on the ground that the civil aviation no-fly zone must be bypassed. During take-off and landing of aircraft, the airport’s runway resources are limited and cannot meet the requirements of a large number of aircraft taking off and landing at the same time. The air vortex generated by some aircraft after take-off and landing will affect the runway environment. It also takes some time for the runway to be put into use again. The aircraft must Waiting for arrival or departure, so you must also fly on the route.

7 months ago

If there is a path on the grass, would you follow it? In fact, the route in the sky, the route of this route must have flown many sorties. Why do you fly like this? When there were airplanes in the first place, landmarks were used to navigate the flight. Just watching the ground fly. With the development of science and technology, the ceiling of the aircraft is getting higher and the range is getting farther and farther, and there are navigation stations, NDB, VOR, DME. The equipment is actually quite expensive, and it is not installed wherever you want. In other words, you can’t fly wherever you want. As the economy develops, there are more and more airplanes and more and more flights. Someone must maintain order. This is what the controller does to maintain the order of air traffic, prevent aircraft collisions, and accelerate the flow. With rules, there will be prescribed air routes. With radar behind, you can use radar to monitor and control aircraft in the air, but there are places that radar cannot cover. After all, the cost is high. In deserts, uninhabited areas, and oceans, the cost and difficulty of installing navigation stations and radars in these places are high. Therefore, the free flight of the aircraft will be restricted. In addition, due to my country’s national conditions, the airspace is owned by troops and cannot fly casually. In addition, some places will have restricted zones, dangerous zones, and forbidden zones. So I can’t fly freely. Hey, the expressive ability is too poor, so I’m going to end here. The routes in the air were all made with blood by the ancestors.

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