In the summer of 1986, when an employee of a brick factory in Guanghan, Sichuan excavated soil at the second excavation area of ​​the Sanxingdui site, he dug a corner at a depth of two meters from the surface, accidentally revealing more than ten stone tools, and the mystery of the sacrificial pit of Sanxingdui was revealed.
Mysterious bronze masks, golden rods, bronze sacred trees… The cultural relics unearthed in Sanxingdui have shocked us too much. How did the word Sanxingdui come from? From the map, the three mounds where Sanxingdui is located are arranged in a straight line, like three gold stars in a line, but it is speculated that this was originally a strip-shaped city wall, and it is likely that two gaps were dug up by late human activities. Three solitary piles are formed.
34 years later, on September 6, 2020, the archaeology of the sacrificial area of ​​the Sanxingdui site announced the resumption of excavations. The six sacrificial relics that first showed signs have attracted much attention.
Mysterious masks, eye worship, sacrificial riddles… Where did the raw materials for the many bronze and jade artifacts unearthed at the site come from? Why do they appear in the pit? Where did the Sanxingdui civilization come from, and why did it decline?
Almost half a year has passed since the resumption of excavation. What is the progress of the excavation of the Sanxingdui site? What’s new? Can many puzzles be solved?

The discovery of the Sanxingdui site enlightens us that in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages, many ancient people lived in different sub-geographical units in China. They were divided into countless people. The Sanxingdui culture is one of these many people. . Because human beings are divided into groups and thrive in different regions, the evolution of society can show many characteristics. What everyone has the same is the commonality, and what is different is the characteristic. The general summary requires all human beings to understand the nature of their own society, and then summarize it, rather than which region and civilization as the center; the performance of the characteristics requires us to take the beauty of each other, the beauty of the beauty, the beauty of the same, the world is the same. Concept to understand. In historical periods, especially prehistoric and aboriginal periods, many characteristics of social development need to be discovered, summarized, refined and studied through archaeological research. These commonalities and characteristics summarized under the aforementioned principles will deepen mankind’s understanding and understanding of the development and exchange of diverse civilizations, and will form a common mentality for mankind to face historical cognition. This is the prerequisite for the formation of a community with a shared future for mankind. The contribution of building Chinese characteristics, Chinese style, and Chinese style archaeology to a community with a shared future for mankind.


By zhiwo

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6 months ago

On March 20, the “Archaeological China” major project progress meeting was held in Chengdu, Sichuan Province. The meeting notified the important archaeological discoveries and research results of the Sanxingdui site in Guanghan, Sichuan. For a while, the Sanxingdui site became the hottest topic in the field of archaeology and culture. . 1. The location of the Sanxingdui site was originally called Sanxingcun. It was named after there are three slightly obtrusive small mounds arranged like three stars in the sky, and to the north of the site is the moon bay terrace shaped like a crescent moon. The landscape combination is called “Samsung Moon with Moon” in history. A brick factory was to be built in the 1970s, so I prepared to use the soil from three mounds for infrastructure construction. During the construction process, a large number of pottery was found. Unfortunately, when the cultural relics department arrived, the three mounds were destroyed. It’s half down. Later, archaeologists found that the three mounds were actually fragments of the ancient city wall. 2. The results of previous excavations in Sanxingdui were mainly the discovery of two sacrificial pits No. 1 and No. 2. In 2017, the two offices issued the “Opinions on the Implementation of the Inheritance and Development Project of Chinese Excellent Traditional Culture”. By March 2019, the “Implementation Plan for the Protection and Inheritance Project of Ancient Shu Civilization” was announced, and the exploration and excavation of the Sanxingdui site also achieved new results. Pit 3 was discovered on December 2. After March 2020, sacrificial pits 4 to 8 have been discovered one after another. At the beginning of August, the construction of protection greenhouses, archaeological work cabins and technological protection platforms and other technological protection facilities and equipment at the Sanxingdui site began until October 8 when the construction was completed. After October 9th, a full-scale excavation of six newly discovered pits began, and until now, sacrificial relics such as trenches have been discovered in the marginal area. 3. The eight sacrificial pits of the Sanxingdui site are all rectangular, basically facing northeast to southwest, but there are large and small, deep and shallow, and the cultural relics in different sacrificial pits have their own emphasis, such as: No. 5 pit is rich in gold The bone carvings, especially the golden masks, are found; there are many ivory in the No. 4 pit; there are many large bronzes in the No. 3 pit, some of which have traces of improvement, and even some of the bronzes are very exquisite, surpassing the bronzes originally found in the pits 1 and 2; Traces of silk were found in the ruins, tombs, and sacrifice pit No. 3, and some large bronzes had traces of textile wrapping on the exterior. In addition, some new device types have been discovered. These sacrifice pits were not formed at the same time. It was originally thought that the time of Pit No. 2 was very close to the time of the rise of Jinsha Site. It is speculated that the relationship between Jinsha Site and Sanxingdui Site was conquered and conquered. Once it can be determined that the time of other sacrifice pits is later than Jinsha Site, the relationship between the two should be Reconsidered. 4. This excavation has made everyone’s understanding of Sanxingdui clearer: in the artifacts unearthed at the Sanxingdui site, you can see the influence of local cultures in the Bashu region such as Baodun culture (see the early days of Sanxingdui culture), and you can also see The influence of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and the East Gorge area in the western part of Hubei Province (small flat-bottomed pot, bird-head handle, ring foot plate, neck bottle, long-necked pot), and the influence of the Central Plains culture (pottery, sealing pottery, scorpion, scorpion) , High handle beans, bronze medal ornaments, copper bells, Yu Ge, Yu Zhang). From this perspective, Sanxingdui people are not isolated, but have a certain degree of cultural exchanges with neighboring areas. The more attractive part of Sanxingdui culture is the bronzes, which can be divided into two categories, one is masks and portraits different from the Central Plains culture, and the other is bronze vessels similar to the Central Plains culture. According to the previous research results, from the analysis of the composition, the lead content of masks and portraits different from the Central Plains culture is scattered, generally exceeding 10%, and the tin content is 5% to 13%; while the tin content of the bronze containers similar to the Central Plains culture is scattered. , Higher than 15%, and the lead content is concentrated around 10%. It is suggested that the craftsmanship of the two types of bronzes are quite different and may not be produced in the same place. In summary, it can be inferred that the bronzes of the Central Plains style in the Sanxingdui culture may not be produced locally in Sanxingdui, but imported from the Jianghuai area. At this level, it can be said that Sanxingdui’s ideology and spiritual life have their own independence and specificity based on cultural exchanges with the outside world. 5. There are two biggest characteristics of this archaeological excavation organization, one is multidisciplinary linkage. The experience summed up by the National Cultural Heritage Administration is “subject pre-setting, protection synchronization, multi-disciplinary integration, multi-team cooperation”. The 34 cultural preservation units work synchronously, aiming to comprehensively collect all the information, not limited to the artifacts themselves, soil, plants, micro-marks, etc. are all areas of information acquisition. The other is to directly build the laboratory on the archaeological site, especially the archaeological excavation cabin, which realizes the constant temperature and humidity during the excavation process and avoids unnecessary interference of the excavation work on the site.

6 months ago

Laxatives, at the end of 2019, after the news of the resumption of the excavation of the sacrificial pits 3-9 in Sanxingdui came out, I was very excited. After more than a year of waiting, the precious cultural relics of the six new sacrificial pits have been seen again. The work of exposing is far from over, but we now seem to be able to get some knowledge of the artifacts we have produced. First of all, judging from the cultural relics unearthed in Pits 3-9, the nature of the newly excavated sacrificial pits is basically the same as the original sacrificial pits No. 1 and 2, that is, most of the artifacts are smashed, burned and buried; the buried time is no earlier than Yin Ruins Phase 1 is no later than Yin Ruins Phase 3. A large number of ivory, Sanxingdui-style bronzes (human masks, altars, sacred trees), southern bronzes (lei, zun), gold ware (golden masks), etc., have greatly enriched the Sanxingdui culture The connotation, but there is no subversive discovery. Secondly, judging from the artifacts that have been produced so far, the face of Sanxingdui culture is more complicated, but what is certain is that Sanxingdui is by no means a bronze civilization that emerged completely independently, and it is even less likely to be “outside the outside world” promoted by some sensationalists. “Established by Stars” is a bronze civilization that has had close exchanges with the bronze civilizations in the Central Plains and the lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

6 months ago

1. I won’t talk about the specific artifacts unearthed this time. There are so many reports that can be seen. The golden mask unearthed this time also continues the usual style of Sanxingdui. If there is any expectation, it is naturally to find out the relationship between the Sanxingdui civilization and other civilizations and sort out the past and present of Sanxingdui. Of course, this is a bit difficult, no, it should be difficult. Here mainly talk about some doubts about Sanxingdui. 2. The biggest mystery of Sanxingdui lies in its comparison with other sites in China and other sites in the world, which show huge differences. A major feature of Chinese civilization is continuity. But the emergence of Sanxingdui broke it. I don’t see the source from above, I don’t see where to go from below, I stand alone there. And we can only look at her from a distance, admire her up close, and then stupidly say: Our tracing of the origin of Chinese civilization, Sanxingdui’s value is immeasurable. 3. The relationship between Sanxingdui and the King of Ancient Shu. The three generations of Cancong, Baiguan and Yufu are hundreds of years old. Obviously, these are not three people, but three countries, or three clans. The traditional view is that the civilization of Sichuan is all foreign. For example, it is believed that the Cancong and the Yellow River Basin are closely related, and the argument is that the pottery unearthed in the upper reaches of the Minjiang River is similar to the painted pottery at the bottom of Miaogou, Henan. Bai Guan came to avoid the war of the Shang Dynasty. Yufu comes from the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Du Yu comes from the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, and the argument is that “Fall from Heaven, Stop Zhu Ti” in “The Book of King Shu”, Zhu Ti is in the area of ​​Zhaotong, Yunnan. In fact, the emergence of Sanxingdui civilization can basically break this claim. The unearthed cultural relics in Sanxingdui are unique and large in scale. Sanxingdui should be a natural result of local civilization. At the same time, the Jinsha site, not far from the Sanxingdui civilization, was about later than Sanxingdui. The unearthed artifacts are also different from other civilizations, but they are more connected and not as abrupt as Sanxingdui. On the contrary, the Jinsha site is like the product of the fusion of Sanxingdui civilization and Central Plains civilization. 4. The Tuojiang water system and the Minjiang water system where Sanxingdui is located belong to two different water systems. Although the two water systems have been opened up, they belonged to the two water systems in the Sanxingdui era. This is relatively easy to be overlooked. Baodun Culture, Yufu Village, and Gaoshan in the Minjiang River are relatively normal sites, while Sanxingdui in the Tuojiang River is of a different style. 5. The mask culture of Sanxingdui needs attention. Early Chinese masks were generally used for sacrificial activities. During the Shang and Zhou dynasties, Nuo sacrifice activities were particularly popular. The central figure of the Nuo sacrifice was called Fang Xiangshi. In the exorcism ceremony, “Fang Xiangshi, palm covered with bear skin, golden four eyes, mysterious clothes and Zhushang, held Ge Yangshi, Shuai Baili and then Nuo, use the Suo room to expel the epidemic” (“Zhou Li·Xiaguan”). Because Fang Xiangshi wears a bronze mask, this dance is also called “Fang Xiangwu.” The mask of Sanxingdui is supposed to be related to sacrifices. In the history of world civilization, the mask of Egyptian civilization is particularly famous. Sanxingdui is similar to ancient Egypt. Whether this is a coincidence or a commonality among civilizations is not yet known. 6. Talk about a few hot spots. The standing portrait is ivory, which should be no problem. It seems that the ancient Shu people are prone to hyperthyroidism, so the mask eyes are relatively abrupt. This is not a concern, but a ghost. On the other hand, people in Sanxingdui want to see farther, so their eyes are long. Such a statement is unreasonable. Whether the sun wheel is a symbol of the sun is really hard to say. If it is not round, it is said to be the sun. The mother has milk, but it’s not just mothers who have milk, but also the cows on the farm. The head of a man wearing a gold mask is golden when the bronze is made, and the golden bronze statue is added with gold skin. The head is definitely shining golden when it is made. It’s just that after years, the bronze has become the color it is now. The last one, the newly unearthed golden mask fragment, should be the same as the one unearthed at the Jinsha site. Although the two major sites have been separated by hundreds of years, this golden skin is still quite popular. Bronze standing portrait, bronze vertical eye, sun wheel wearing a gold mask, bronze man head, just unearthed golden mask fragment, golden mask unearthed at the Jinsha site

6 months ago

I personally think that the Sanxingdui site is a strong support for the starry sky theory in the ancient times of our country, that is, the ancient Chinese civilization in the Neolithic era was not concentrated in the Central Plains, but developed independently in various parts of China like the Star Dou but also influenced each other. The strange and weird bronzes unearthed in Sanxingdui I think it is more reasonable to explain the sacrificial power to the gods. For this point, I refer to the Liangzhu culture of the same period. The Liangzhu culture of the same period shows the development trend of the gods’ civilization. . As for why the cultural relics of Sanxingdui are strange and rare, I personally think that this is because the Sanxingdui culture in the Sichuan Basin has not been affected by other civilizations and developed independently. These cultural relics are only the embodiment of the Sanxingdui civilization.

6 months ago

1. The planning for a self-driving trip to Guanghan can be done. 2. Chinese civilization embraces hundreds of rivers. The beauty of service is called Hua, and the beauty of etiquette is called Xia. Compared with before, the Chinese people have a stronger acceptance of the starry prehistoric culture. As the national power grows stronger, everyone has become more and more confident. Liangzhu culture is part of the orthodox Chinese civilization, and Sanxingdui is of course an inseparable part of the orthodox Chinese civilization. 3. Conspiracy theories can be stopped. A large number of traditional Central Plains civilization symbols such as cloud thunder pattern and gluttonous pattern appear in the unearthed bronzes of Sanxingdui, which shows that although Sanxingdui is very special, it is by no means a civilization that descended from the sky out of thin air, but has full exchanges with the Central Plains civilization and is closely related. Alien culture said that waiting for the curious argument can rest.

6 months ago

Author: Off the Tan
Source: Zhihu
The copyright belongs to the author. For commercial reprints, please contact the author for authorization, and for non-commercial reprints, please indicate the source.

Western historians have been committed to building the ancient Egypt-Two Rivers Civilization-Ancient Persia-Ancient Greece-Ancient Rome-Roman civilization route. Almost the whole world recognizes this civilization line, including some people in China. , Began to attack Chinese history. Many discussions about ancient history have been opened up, basically because of choking, because they can’t find the relics of the Xia Dynasty civilization, and doubt the entire Chinese civilization system. In recent years, with the excavation of Erlitou, Shimao, Taosi Liangzhu and other sites, the richness of Chinese civilization history has begun to exceed the imagination of the world, and Chinese civilization has begun to be accepted by the world, but because the excavations are not supported by a large number of heavy cultural relics, Not being noticed by most people in the world, and lack of news dissemination. But this time Sanxingdui is different. Its rich bronze cultural relics and exaggerated cultural relic shapes are beyond imagination. It is enough to spread on the world network for a while, and it also allows those bananas who are suspicious of ancient China in China to reflect on it. As the excavations continue, more explosive cultural relics will be discovered. Some of these cultural relics may be mutually confirmed with historical books, and some will enrich the history of Chinese civilization. Chinese civilization is different from Europe and the United States.

6 months ago

This is of great significance to the archaeological community. This time, a large number of gold products were unearthed in Pit No. 5, which also contained a unique golden mask. It was very different from the golden masks unearthed in other pits. This mask was extraordinarily thick and distinctive.
Looking forward to discovering new text and new bronze technology this time ~ can unlock more ancient things in Bashu!

6 months ago

I asked myself that I don’t have the strength to write anything nutritious in the field of ancient civilization and archaeology, so I just take the perspective of a tourist and bring goods to our country’s magnificent and shocking tourism resources. In January of this year, I stayed in Chengdu for a month, and also visited some of the surrounding scenic spots by the way. After that, I met people in Amway Sichuan. In terms of personal taste, I feel like Wuhou Temple, Du Fu Thatched Cottage or Kuanzhai Alley are not very worth seeing. Apart from the giant panda, Sichuan is really attractive to me. There are two main points. One is famous mountains and rivers, and the other is the remains of these ancient civilizations. Regarding the famous mountains and rivers, it’s hard for people who haven’t been there to imagine. When you walk into the mountainous area of ​​Ya’an, drive on the highway hanging in front of the mountain wall, and look at the mountains next to it, it’s also hard to imagine, when you’re hiking Walking up to Qingcheng Mountain, the spiritual pleasure of looking at the scenery below the mountain from the top of the mountain. Of course, in Sichuan, this is just the most well-known scale among the magnificent mountains and rivers, and there are still many places to refresh people. I also hope to return there in the future to feel and think. As for ancient civilizations, in Sichuan, perhaps the most famous are two places, one is the Jinsha relics in Chengdu, and the other is Sanxingdui. This article will focus on describing my feelings about Sanxingdui. First, it’s not difficult to get to Sanxingdui from Chengdu. Even if you don’t know how to drive, you can travel on your own. You can get to Guanghanbei in less than half an hour and then take a taxi, which takes only 20 minutes. Can reach Sanxingdui. In fact, when I arrived at Sanxingdui in January this year, I realized that I might have missed something. Only the museum is open, but the site is closed for excavation. On the one hand, I am sorry because I don’t know when I can go there again. On the other hand, I am fascinated. After all, not far from us, the history of the ancestors is uncovering the mysterious veil in Sanxingdui, which has been unearthed before. Yes, one of the most famous large objects must have this bronze man. This should be an authority like the high priest, standing proudly with his hands in a strange posture. The unsolved mystery left to us by this object is exactly what object he was holding in the middle of the circle between his hands. Some guessed it was ivory, some guessed it was a scepter, and some people thought it was an action that had some meaning. Perhaps this new excavation will provide us archaeologists with some new evidence and conjectures. And the other thing that is puzzling is these big bronze masks. If it is a mask, their eyes are not only closed, but also protruding outward, making modern people feel that it is not like a human product. Including my acquaintance young lady who also joked that I was abducted by aliens. Turning to the ancient book’s record: “There is a prince of Shu, the silkworm cluster, whose eyes are vertical, before he became king.”—“Huayang Guozhi” It seems that the eyes of the ancestors of the ancient Shu civilization are indeed somewhat different from ordinary people, but no matter how prominent they are, Isn’t it as exaggerated as these masks show? Are these masks expressing an exaggeration, a romanticization of later generations to the sages, or a sanctification of the eye shape for some reason? Even this is a realistic work. There are too many mysteries to be answered. . Whether in Sanxingdui or Jinsha, another obvious feature is the worship of birds or the sun by the ancestors of Shu. From the perspective of modern people, we might be able to easily instill it in the name of superstition, but is the answer that simple? To take a step back, even if this is a kind of superstition, back to today, thousands of years later, whether we human beings living in a civilized world have been immersed in a kind of blind self-confidence that man can overcome the sky for a long time, compared with those “ignorant and ignorant”. The people have lost a bit of awe and respect for nature. When we see these ancient objects, to understand the ancestors’ worship of nature and respect for living things may also be good for us to implement the idea of ​​living in harmony with nature. Among the two relics of Sanxingdui and Jinsha, perhaps the most worthy of our consideration is these jade artifacts. It’s not that this is more exquisite than those bronze or gold wares, but there are many jade wares here that you can see traces from other civilizations in the land of China. This may indicate that in that ancient era, there was a kind of power that connected our people from all over the world together, and finally formed the Chinese civilization together. There may be peaceful transactions and visits, as well as bloody wars and plunder, but in these histories, we are all one after all. If I want to know something from these new discoveries, I might even want to know how our ancestors finally came together through all kinds of difficulties. Seeing the sparse fragments of civilizations from all parts of China in these ancient civilization relics, and then looking at the status quo in Europe and North America, may we be able to understand the preciousness and difficulty of the words “blood is thicker than water”.

6 months ago

I found that in some places where there is no controversy, the wheels have begun to take rhythm again. What is the continuity of Chinese civilization, what is the Central Plains civilization? The history of civilization refers to the history of written records, and the prehistoric regional culture of Sanxingdui, as long as This piece of land belonged to Chinese civilization in the later period, and naturally it was the prehistoric culture of Chinese civilization. In other words, if this piece of land is now in another country, it is the prehistoric culture of his family. It is a simple truth. How can you use things from the third millennium BC to deny the things from the next five thousand years? Qin also destroyed the Six Nations, you can say that Yanzhao Qi culture is not Qin culture, how do you say they are not Chinese culture?

6 months ago

At the end of the 19th century, at the most humiliating time in China, we discovered the oracle bone inscriptions of our ancestors. This year, a major change unseen in a century, we discovered the ancient country of Heluo, unearthed more than a thousand tombs in Xi’an, and restarted Sanxingdui. The Sanxingdui site is an important representative of the world’s bronze civilization from the 16th century BC to the 14th century BC. It is of great value for studying the process of early countries and the development of religious consciousness, and occupies an important position in the history of human civilization. The discovery of the Sanxingdui site advances the history of the ancient Shu kingdom to 5,000 years ago, proving that the Yangtze River basin is the birthplace of the Chinese nation as well as the Yellow River basin, and that the Yangtze River basin has an ancient civilization no less than that of the Yellow River basin. According to the handed down documents, the development process of Shu can also be roughly outlined. The monarchs in the ancient history of Shu came from different ethnicities. It was not until the establishment of the Enlightened Dynasty that the ancient Shu Kingdom became a hereditary kingdom, and the Enlightened Dynasty was ultimately unable to cope with it. The powerful enemy of Qin in the north perished. I always feel that this is the blessing of our ancestors in the dark, and we come to boost our spirits from time to time.

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