In theory, there must be a difference, but we will never know how big the difference is. Because for an independent individual, it is either preparing for pregnancy or not preparing for pregnancy. Even if the same mother gave birth to two children, one was preparing for pregnancy and the other was an accident. There are too many influencing factors linked to the health of the child and other indicators, and we cannot infer the impact of pregnancy through the performance of the two children. There is a controlled variable method in economics, which is often used to study similar problems, that is, under the assumption that other variables are the same, to study the impact of the variable of whether to prepare for pregnancy on the health indicators of newborns. I haven’t found relevant literature, but even if there is similar research, its guiding significance will not be too great, because most people who have a plan to have a child will carefully prepare for pregnancy, and the high probability of not preparing for pregnancy is an accident. There is certainly no shortage of readers who are looking at this question about unplanned pregnancy and worry about whether they should keep their children. Both of my children got pregnant by accident, especially my younger sister. I just had a physical examination one month before pregnancy, which included a chest X-ray. Although the abdomen was covered by protective clothing, I was still terrified, and I was afraid that it would affect the baby in my stomach. At the first check-up, I told the obstetrician and gynecologist about this concern. She said that there would be an impact, but this impact is either 0 or 1, and there is no intermediate value. That is to say, if it is affected, the baby will be aborted spontaneously. If it is conceived normally, it means that there is no essential effect. Of course, check-ups should be done on time, folic acid should be eaten as soon as possible, diet and rest should be paid attention to, and all efforts should be done as much as possible. Of course, I would not persuade others to not get pregnant just because I did not prepare for pregnancy and gave birth to two healthy and lovely children. On the contrary, I will advise you to prepare for pregnancy if conditions permit, and be prepared for it! Survivor deviations always exist. The elders wondered if we had folic acid or preparation for pregnancy. The same is true when we gave birth one after another. Combining the two pregnancy experiences, I will share some small experiences for everyone: 1. Be sure to do a premarital examination! I remember that the Civil Affairs Bureau will give you a spree for a premarital checkup when you get the certificate. You must do it. It is better to make sure that you are in good health before getting pregnant. If you find any problems, you can get treatment in time. 2. Folic acid will affect the development of the fetal nervous system. Start taking folic acid by mouth three months before pregnancy. If you get pregnant by accident, start taking it from the day you know you are pregnant! Studies have shown that adequate folic acid intake by pregnant women can reduce the birth rate of fetuses with neurological malformations and cleft lip. 3. In the first six months of pregnancy, both husband and wife quit smoking and drinking. If you get pregnant by accident, stop smoking and drinking immediately and stay away from second-hand smoke. 4. Regardless of whether you are preparing for pregnancy or not, you must have regular check-ups during pregnancy and follow the doctor’s advice! There is no absolute thing in the world. If you have the conditions, it is best to prepare for pregnancy carefully. Don’t panic about an unexpected pregnancy. The experience of others may not be suitable for you. Everything depends on the professional advice of your doctor. Finally, I wish all parents who want a baby a good pregnancy! If you have time, you can also look through pregnancy-related books, scientifically prepare for pregnancy, and use more techniques without pressing your body.