After the electron absorbs energy, it will transition. Please explain the power of the electronic transition from the perspective of the force. That is, the electron only absorbs energy and does not receive any force. Why does it transition? Want to know the microscopic dynamics?

More basic than “force” is “interaction”. All forces are essentially interactions. There are four kinds of interactions: gravitation, electromagnetic, weak interaction and strong interaction. To put it more bluntly, the interaction is described by images, that is, one particle collides with another (gravity is not easy to say, it is still uncertain, but the other three are like this). Therefore, interaction is actually more basic than the concept of “force”. Of course, you can “define” force, nothing more than the change in momentum per unit time. Or, to be more precise, it means that an electron has a completely inelastic collision with a photon, and the force on the electron is the change in the momentum of the electron before and after the collision divided by the time it takes (I have to say that this definition is really It’s too bad.) Micro dynamics. This is already the most basic, how to go microscopically. Finally, I remembered a question Feynman mentioned. He tried to explain to his father that the image of the interaction between electrons and electrons is that electron A emits a virtual photon, and this virtual photon is received by electron B, so electron A transfers energy and momentum to electron B through this virtual photon. . Then Feynman’s father asked, why can electrons emit a photon? Are there many photons in electrons? Also, how do electrons receive photons, and where do they store them? Therefore, physics is a subject of mathematics and science. The above description uses Feynman diagrams to physically explain the scattering between electrons. However, before the Feynman diagrams, there were no such images at all. These images actually correspond to piles of piles. Cumbersome formulas and calculations. If you don’t understand those formulas and just want to speculate on various things from the simple descriptions above, it is very possible to ask a bunch of strange questions.


By stockin

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6 months ago

1. Quantum mechanics does not allow you to analyze the force like classical mechanics. The electrons have no definite trajectory, and it is meaningless to analyze the force. 2. Qm mainly analyzes energy, and analysis of force is not a problem that can be solved by Schrodinger’s equation. 3. If you can figure out the force analysis of electrons accurately someday, please tell me. We can work together to make a big news. 4. The electron absorbs photons and exchanges energy with the field. When the photon hits the electron, the electron will also receive a force, so this is the reason why the electron cannot be accurately measured for position and momentum. You must hit the photon on the electron to measure. The impact of the photon’s energy on the system at the macro level is very small, while the impact at the micro level is great.

6 months ago

What did you get wrong about force? Force is just an illusion; there is no force in this world, only fields; in the field, the excitation of the field (fermions that make up matter) is experienced by exchanging particles that do not make up matter (also called bosons) such as photons and gluons To “force”, and then change its state of motion. Here you say that electrons absorb energy. The energy absorbed here obviously refers to the energy of the electromagnetic field (photon). Isn’t it a natural thing to exchange photon transitions? Even the scattering (pinball) caused by the collision of electrons and electrons is the trajectory changed by the exchange of “virtual” photons when the electrons are close by the “force” (so-called electromagnetic force).

6 months ago

The subject’s question reminded me of something in class that year. When we were in the class of “Atomic Physics”, the teacher asked us this question: Now there is a photon whose energy is exactly equal to the energy difference between the excited state and the ground state of an atom. Can the photon make a The atom in the ground state transitions to an excited state? Am I still too young too naive, what’s wrong with me? Is there enough energy? The teacher must be making a fuss. So enthusiastically spoke: “Why not? Can it transition to an excited state!” The teacher smiled slightly: “During the reaction, energy must be conserved and momentum must be conserved. The atom was originally in a static state, but now it has absorbed a photon, but the momentum is not. It’s zero. The photon’s energy cannot all be converted into transition energy, some part of it must be converted into kinetic energy, so…” Then the teacher began to explain to us the Musembauer effect…Photon not only has energy but also momentum. At the moment of the transition, the atom absorbs the energy and momentum of the photon and transitions to an excited state. And we can also define the size of the force according to the momentum theorem to complete the force analysis. However, there is still a problem. The reactions in the microcosm are almost instantaneous. The reaction time has not yet been measured, so there is no way to calculate the force during the transition, so the subject is still dead for the time being.

6 months ago

Although quantum mechanics has a mechanics in its name, it does not have the concept of force in classical mechanics at all. Of course you can make something that is roughly similar, but most of the time this is not necessary. A transition is a wave function that has a certain distribution in space and an electromagnetic field that has a certain distribution in space. The interaction at each overlapping space-time point affects each other. The transition is the result of the influence on the electronic wave function.

6 months ago

Although the figure is drawn in layers of orbits, like a planetary diagram of the solar system, it is actually just a schematic drawing for ease of understanding. Here, the radius of the orbit is not the concept of distance in space, but the concept of energy level. The changes in space are gradual. Just like a spacecraft launched on the earth flying to Mars, it must change continuously in space, rather than suddenly “crossing” from the earth to Mars. It is not a fantasy world, and there is no arbitrary portal. In terms of energy, energy absorption is not gradual. Energy has the concept of “energy packet” similar to the “data packet” in data transmission. For example, we know that the data packet has a fixed format, with a header and a beacon. If the data packet is incomplete, it will not be recognized. No data is received and data received are two states. There is no intermediate state. There is no such thing as receiving half of the data. status. The same is true for energy. Energy is absorbed one by one, and energy level changes are brought about by absorbing energy. This change is vividly described as a “jump”.

6 months ago

In fact, it is caused by the quantum nature of the interaction. When an electron absorbs or emits a photon—energy, it must be affected by force, but the effect of this force is not continuous and continuous, but intermittent quantum. The quantum nature of energy realizes the quantum nature of interaction, that is, energy conversion and force action, and electrons transition from one inertial state to another inertial state. Non-inertial motion is essentially composed of a series of different stationary states of inertia, and the non-inertial frame of reference is composed of a series of quantized inertial frame of reference. Einstein’s elevator experiment is an experiment in quantized space-time, which is the macroscopic world. What is incomprehensible is justified in the microcosm. This is the discontinuity and quantum nature of motion—jumping motion—a steady-state jump—a jump like a frog, a bunny, and a kangaroo—a jump like the image on the film, and it forms a superiority. Frame of reference—a superior frame of reference required by the unified classical physics and theory of relativity, which is composed of the inertial stationary state of all transiently stationary particles. The speed of light is naturally constant relative to this superior frame of reference. Because the particle state itself is the existence of intermittent quantization, it is static, and the emission and absorption of photons occur in a static inertial state. The speed of light is naturally constant relative to the speed of any particle and a macroscopic object composed of particles. change. Jumping motion-the quantization of motion and space-time, not only directly solves Zeno’s paradox, but also finds a superior frame of reference and “relative space-time ether”, which can directly deny the existence of “infinite hour space interval” and instantaneous velocity. Only average speed and no instantaneous speed, position and speed cannot exist at the same time, directly overturning the largest pseudo-science “uncertainty principle” and “uncertainty principle”! I wonder if you are happy or angry? There are many people who are filled with righteous indignation, such as the mourning concubine, let them go!

6 months ago

First of all, what everyone upstairs said makes sense. Secondly, it makes sense when you talk about it, as long as you mention: Quantum mechanics is very unique, you can’t think about it in classical mechanics, the subject is definitely not satisfied, and thinks this is sophistry. It should be answered like this: the electron absorbs energy, the charge amount increases, and the repulsion between the electron and the nucleus becomes greater, so it jumps, [\doge]. In terms of electrodynamics, I once asked the teacher a question: wave-particle duality, light has particles and wave properties, then when the light beam passes through the glass, where does its particle nature go? Why doesn’t it hit the glass? . In other words, the wave-particle duality seems to be the volatility when it needs to be explained as particles, and when it needs to be explained as particles, it becomes volatility when it needs to be volatility. At that time, I thought it was sophistry.

6 months ago

The concept of quantum mechanics cannot simply be understood with the concept of Newtonian mechanics. Electron energy level is used to describe the possible energy state of electrons rotating around atoms. The corresponding specific discrete energy values are solved by the Schrödinger equation, that is to say, electrons will have a high probability of distribution or appear in these energy states. And because the energy of a single electron cannot be measured according to Heisenberg’s principle, the distribution probability of electrons refers to the average probability. The description of the electronic energy level transition refers to the greater probability that the electron will appear on the new energy orbit, which is a A probabilistic process, the so-called single-electron transition is to better enable students to understand the solution of Schrodinger’s equation, rather than simply imagining that a single electron is pulled from one orbit to another by a certain microscopic force.

6 months ago

Qualitative analysis, absorbed energy, where did the energy come from? Suppose it is the energy of a photon. The photon is bound to the electron. This is a two-body collision problem. An electron and a photon finally become an enhanced version of electrons. They pass through each other without interacting, and collide with each other for an instant. The effect is the force you want, so the interaction you have to find can be understood in this way. . . However, the microcosm is more inclined to speak of energy. This is because Lagrangian mechanics and Hamiltonian mechanics are better than Newtonian mechanics, and quantum mechanics is based on these mechanics. As for why the language of Newtonian mechanics is not easy to use, that is another question.

6 months ago

Force is an interaction, wherever your energy comes from, you are subject to any force. For example, when electrons absorb photon transitions, they are subjected to electromagnetic force. Transition refers to a change in the state of an electron. It may be that it moves faster, it may be that its range of motion runs from the inner layer to the outer layer, and so on. But the movement of electrons in matter is very complicated. For example, it is affected by the force of the nucleus of the atom, the force of the next nucleus, the force of other electrons, and the force of various potential fields, so it is almost impossible to analyze the relationship between the force and movement of the electron in the microscopic view. From the perspective of Newtonian mechanics, it can only be said qualitatively, because it absorbs energy under force, may run to the outer orbit, may leave the atom and become a free electron. Macroscopically, the forces of other electrons and atomic nuclei received by an electron can be added together, approximately as a periodic potential field, and then the effective mass of an electron can be converted, so that the relationship between external force, effective mass and electronic acceleration roughly conforms to classical mechanics. The effective mass of electrons in different substances can be measured by cyclotron resonance experiments.

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