The Cambridge History of War is a good book, and there are many details to refer to. Whether the Roman or Greek phalanx of the Eastern and Western armies, Daqin, or Japan, the archer (Mongolia), the javelin (Rome) break the formations -> the formations (Qi Jiguang Mandarin Duck array, Greek phalanx, Roman phalanx), cavalry break everything Skirmish. Otherwise, what is meant by “stretch soldiers”, no matter how “Japanese people are good at jumping” or with sharp blades, it is useless to run into a standard army formation, not to mention that there are crossbowmen in the pile and throwing cold arrows on the shoulder of the gunner. There is no room for detours in the battlefield, and it relies on courage and strength, and trust in comrades-in-arms. The gap in the ordinary battlefield must be quickly filled, otherwise it will be catastrophic: the Roman legion has a short sword, and the metal craftsmanship at that time is very poor. It is not reliable to use a long sword, but it is squeezed into one or two by a shield. Going to the opposite gun array is like cutting melons and vegetables. The original words of the Cambridge war history are: many veterans have witnessed the power of Roman daggers, and they have severed their limbs and flew across, which is frightening. The era of the military formation was still very advantageous for skirmishers until the “queuing to shoot” era of line infantry. The army was strictly disciplined and didn’t dodge until the face was shot, and the army that was particularly brave and bayonet was the most fierce army. In the First World War, Germany had machine guns, and the British lined up to send tens of thousands of talents a day to the end. There is room for swordsmanship and spear skills in street fighting and architectural competition, or there is temptation, but in most cases, the number of people, equipment, and environment are not equal, and the battle will soon break the balance and resolve the battle. In the battle between battle formations and battle formations, most of the time the purpose is not to kill on the spot, but to break the formation, break up the formed ancient troops into skirmishers, and then hunt these remnants like animals, or catch or kill them. Consolidate the results. It is rare to see battles that slaughter tens of thousands of people in a day and a half, and as long as they appear, they will basically go down in history. Most of the ancient armies came from strong men. Even self-employed professional soldiers did not have a strong will to fight at a loss. The reason for the last person in the battle was usually one of the following reasons: either because of the backwaters or the inability to retreat in Wengcheng. To retreat, refer to the case of Carthage besieging the Roman legion, or the case of Han Xin binding the fate of the general and the soldier in a last fight. Generally speaking, Bingbing, HEMA and the like are more similar to the duel between swordsmen. It is not a confrontation between armies, and it is not the same thing at all.