The high probability that this question can be asked is to see reductionism + determinism and then think that everything is predictable; or to see that quantum theory believes that quantum uncertainty overturns determinism and thus the aforementioned view is invalid. Reductionism anyway itself is fine, so the real point is to recognize this determinism. First of all, we have to clarify the definition of this so-called free consciousness. There is a definition that you define consciousness as free if the rest of nature (regardless of whether you are a person or a thing) other than the person concerned cannot predict the person’s behavior or thoughts. If it is this definition, then the problem is a technical problem. At least there is currently no accepted theory that can effectively prove the incalculability of the human brain. Of course, it is technically impossible at present, but from a theoretical point of view, you can only say that it is possible in principle. In this case, it can only be considered that consciousness is not free in principle, because it can be predicted in principle. Another definition is related to determinism, that is, the definition of consciousness is freedom. iff determinism does not hold. Determinism must be established in classical physics, so the only possibility is that quantum theory may overturn determinism. However, whether quantum theory can overthrow determinism, for now, highly depends on the interpretation you adopt. If you use the Copenhagen interpretation, then every measurement (or every decoherence I should say) will encounter randomness. Of course determinism is not valid at this time. But if you adopt a multi-world interpretation and think that every decoherence is to choose one of many different possible worlds, then determinism is still valid. Because at this time the entire universe obeys a Schrödinger equation: where is a quantum state in the entire universe, and is the Hamiltonian of the entire universe. In this case, even if a universe is randomly selected for every decoherence, it still follows this certain differential equation as a whole, so the determinism still holds. In fact, the competitiveness of the multi-world interpretation is basically here: compared to the Copenhagen interpretation, the multi-world interpretation does not need to undermine determinism. If it weren’t for this powerful feature, the creation of a bunch of not even wrong parallel universes would have to be eliminated by the Occam’s razor principle, and would certainly not be recognized by the academic community. So the conclusion in this case is that if you believe in the Copenhagen interpretation, then consciousness is free; if you believe in the multiworld interpretation, then consciousness is not free; if you believe in other interpretations… Then re-analyze whether determinism is Still established. the above.