The Ming Dynasty was actually very early, basically at dawn and dawn. As for why the early time was set so early, Li Dongyang, a cabinet scholar in the reign of Emperor Wuzong Zhengde of the Ming Dynasty, once said clearly: In February of the second year of Zhengde (February 5th), Li Dongyang, a scholar, please wait for the early court, saying: Since ancient times Shengdi Mingwang must take the virtue of respecting, respecting and keenness, and the first thing in the early dynasty is to be diligent. When the emperor came to the throne, he often looked at the dynasty with ambiguity, Chinese and foreign happily, and hoped for the cure. After a short while or until now, people are skeptical, and the hope is still in sight since this morning. One is the saint’s ambition to be clear and clear, the other is the court’s seriousness, the third is that the attendants and the guards can decorate the court rituals, the four are civil and military officials, they can manage government affairs, and the five are the bells. There are festivals in the sound: Guangben holds the original sound as a drum.) It can be heard in a city, and the six quotations have a period of time, which can sing the admiration of foreigners. In one fell swoop, the sages will be praised by the world. This is easy to do and its effect is very great, only in the moment of the transfer of the Sacred Heart. The above said: Qing waits for words to govern the way, I know it. According to Li Dongyang, at the beginning of his enthronement, Zhu Houzhao of Emperor Wuzong of the Ming Dynasty “looked at the country with ambiguity.” The so-called “ambiguity” means that at dawn, dawn, and dawn, it is indeed around 5 o’clock in the morning. But at the beginning of the second year of Zhengde, Zhu Houzhao began to slack off, and often did not come out to the court until Shishi, which was 9-11 in the morning. Look at Zhu Houzhao, a lazy guy, he can’t get up either! Therefore, the ministers headed by Li Dongyang had opinions, and Shangshu reminded the emperor to go to the early court on time. As for why the early dynasty was so early, Li Dongyang said the six benefits: “One is that the sage is to be clear and clear, the other is that the court is serious, the third is that the attendants and the guards are not tired, and the court can be decorated, and the fourth is that the civil and military officials Do not relax, you can manage government affairs, five bells are ringing, you can hear and hear in a city, and six are quoted for a period of time, you can sing the gaze of foreigners.” To clarify, in fact, the brain is clearer in the morning and the atmosphere is clear. It is more solemn and solemn, and everyone’s energy is still full when they wake up early, and the guards are refreshing. The civil and military officials can also handle government affairs as early as possible. In the afternoon, they will become tired and slack. In ancient times, there was no night life. Early to bed and early to wake up were different from the pace of life of modern people. There were too many owls who stayed up late in the party and woke up in the morning, yawning all the time. And the ancient society did say a word, the day is in the morning, and the market streets in the early morning are also the most lively time, full of vitality and vitality. Obviously, General Zhu Shou is also a master with a colorful nightlife. He just can’t get up, and he can’t do like his ancestor Zhu Yuanzhang. “, he woke up naturally when he slept, and then came late, and only came to the morning court after nine o’clock, so that the civil and military courts of the Manchu Dynasty waited. Unlike Zhu Houzhao who was lazy less than two years after ascending the throne, his cousin Ming Shizong Zhu Houhu was different! It is not easy for Zhu Houhu to take the position from the feudal prince to the successor. Before the mid-Jiajing period, Sejong had always been an image of striving for governance. In the early dynasty, he was so diligent that he was moved by cabinet scholar Yang Yiqing and others. He even persuaded the emperor to pay attention to his health and not to get up too early, after sunrise. Get it early! (Tears eyes~~~) In December Renshen (December 29) of the sixth year of Jiajing, academician Yang Yiqing said: People dominate the dynasty, when there is a permanent period, ancient rituals, the dynasty begins to discern colors. You see it at sunrise. Your Majesty now always looks at the direction before I am Shuang, or sets a candle to ascend the throne. Although the wind is cold, it is the heart of solidifying and curing, and the holy bow is too unreasonable to overwork? At the beginning of the New Year’s ceremony, Fu Yuan will act in an antique manner, and ordered the official of Hongxu Temple to tell the inside and outside. Every time the sunrise is taken as the degree, or if it is temporarily exempted in the event of a strong wind and cold day, the sage will not bow Labor, the fortune of the souls of Shizongmiao. The above said: Qing et al. said that the true teacher loves the emperor as much as he wants. Recently, a hundred officials inside and outside have been idle and lazy, unable to work hard, so I took the lead, and the concubine was enough to warn Yun’er. The ancient rituals said that one enters the dynasty by discerning colors and looking at it at sunrise. Look at Zhu Houxun, he was often “before Mei Shuang” in the early dynasty, that is, the sky was still dark! Those who lighted candles and boarded the dragon chair early, even if it was a heavy snowstorm, never stopped. This makes the hundred officials uncomfortable! Yang Yiqing: “The emperor, the sky is still dark! You wake up so early and come to the morning court with candles, don’t you feel too exhausted! We suggest that you should follow the ancient rituals from the New Year onwards. Come early! If you encounter a severe wind and cold, it’s better to cancel it!” I guess Yang Yiqing and other officials have a breakdown in their hearts. I guess they want to say: “The emperor, you can stand it young, our gang of bad old men can’t stand it! “In the sixth year of Jiajing (1527), Sejong Zhu Houhou was only 20 years old, and Yang Yiqing (1454-1530) was 73 years old! In the Ming Dynasty, the pre-dynastic officials were called the court councilors and the Beijing court officials. In order to facilitate the early dynasty, they mostly chose houses in the south of the city, such as the east and west Chang’an Avenues, where the court officials lived the most. Every morning before the moon and stars are over, you must rush to the imperial city and walk in from the east and west Chang’anmen. In order to make it easier for officials to wait for the imperial court to “wait for leakage”, there are many court houses built in the imperial city, where officials sit according to their rank. Think about it, the city of Beijing at the end of the twelfth lunar month with heavy winds, heavy snow, cold weather, almost dripping into ice, a group of more than sixty or seventy old men braved the wind and snow, and the sky was still dark, against the stars and the moon, rushed to the front of the imperial city and waited. As they entered the dynasty, they shivered from the cold…so they couldn’t bear it anymore, and they all went up and suggested to the emperor, “You must pay attention to the dragon body!” In fact, the ancient Chinese dynasties were not all in this morning. , There is no need to dynasty every day, such as the five-day-one-chang dynasty system implemented by Emperor Xuan of the Han dynasty. In the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the early dynasty system at dawn every day was probably designed by Zhu Yuanzhang. After that, the ancestral system was difficult to change, so it continued. The original intention of the Ming Dynasty Hui system designed by Zhu Yuanzhang was directly inspired by the narrow reception of the Yuan Dynasty. The dynasty meeting of the Yuan Dynasty was very simple, “every day the ruler enters the Yanchun Pavilion and other halls to play things”. Therefore, some scholars believe that there is no dynasty meeting in the Yuan Dynasty, while some scholars believe that the imperial prelude is a special kind of dynasty. But the scope is extremely small, and the time and place are not fixed. The only “two and three ministers” such as Zhongshusheng, Yushitai, Xuanzhengyuan, and Privy Council were the only “two and three ministers” of the Imperial Conference in the Yuan Dynasty, and the “several people” of Xue Jinshi. Zhu Yuanzhang believed that such a dynasty would be very unfavorable to expand the emperor’s information sources. He believed that one of the most important reasons for the loss of the Yuan dynasty was that the officials were deceived and authority moved down. He naturally regarded it as a bad government and completely reformed it. Therefore, Zhu Yuanzhang turned against the old system of the Mongolian Yuan not re-regulating the dynasty, and began to attach great importance to the upper dynasty. The Ming Dynasty paid more attention to the Korean Assembly than ever before, and the prosperity of the dynasty can be said to have reached the highest peak in history! Here is another question mentioned by the subject, “Can’t you go to court in the afternoon?” Of course, you can’t, because in the early Ming Dynasty, you will not be okay if you go to the morning court. In addition to the morning court, there are noon and evening courts. what! This question is related to someone asking, “Why can’t I study early in the morning so early in the morning?” The answer is of course not, because there are afternoon classes in the afternoon and evening self-study in the evening! In the same way, you moved the morning to the afternoon, so what did you do in the morning? When are the noon and evening dynasties? Now let’s briefly talk about the imperial assembly system of the Ming Dynasty. 1. Ming Dynasty dynasty dynasty system The Ming Dynasty dynasty guild system is divided into the Great Dynasty, the Synod and the Chang Dynasty. Among them, the three dynasties held on Zhengdan, Winter Solstice, and Longevity Festival are the heaviest. On the first day (Shuo) and fifteenth (Wang) of each month, a hundred officials pay homage to them, which is the new year and Wang Dynasty. The above two dynasties Junyu main hall (namely Fengtian Hall, later renamed Huangji Hall, now Taihe Hall) is of a ceremonial nature, and the rituals of court greetings are not allowed. But the real political affairs are in the Chang Dynasty. The Chang Dynasty was divided into the early and late dynasties. Since the later dynasties were abolished for a long time, the Chang dynasty in most of the Ming Dynasty generally referred to the early dynasties, also known as the Japanese dynasties. In addition to necessary etiquette, Chang Chao focuses on political affairs. However, there was no customization at the beginning of the late dynasty, so many people mistakenly believed that there were three dynasties in the early days of the country. In the middle of the Ming dynasty, Qiu Jun, a famous minister, said: “After the early dynasty, when you return to the dynasty at noon, it is the same at night. “In fact, the late dynasty and the noon dynasty are really the same thing, and the titles are different. At the time of Zhu Yuanzhang, the late dynasty was either at Fengtianmen, or at Youshunmen (later renamed to Guijimen, Jinxihemen); at Yongle time at Youshunmen, after Xuande at Zuoshunmen (later renamed Huijimen, today Xiehe Gate). The political arrangements for the early and late dynasties are as follows: Baisi all played in the early dynasty, and those who are not urgently required to play in the late dynasty do not need to go to the late dynasty. That is to say, the late dynasty focused on the urgent matters and did not need to come to the dynasty; the people who had to go in the morning and evening were only the general political officials in charge of Zhang Zou Jincheng. In the fourth year of Yongle (1406), there were many things played in the early dynasty, and the monarchs and the ministers could not do everything. In the afternoon, the affairs were brief, and you could calmly talk about it. All those who have business strategy today will come in the late dynasty. Do all the trouble. The late dynasty played only important matters, with limited participants, simple etiquette, and the emperor and ministers could calmly talk about it, so it was an important supplement to the early dynasty. However, in the late dynasty (after Jingtai’s ceremonial denomination, it was called Wu dynasty) for a long time after the enthronement of Yingzong, Jingtai and Hongzhi tried to revive, but they did not last long. Therefore, the place where the monarch listens to politics is really only the main entrance early, and the early is equal to the permanent. This is the biggest difference between the Ming Dynasty and the previous dynasties. 2. The specific content of the Chang dynasty (early dynasty) of the Ming Dynasty Although the Chang dynasty was not purely ceremonial like the Da dynasty and the Syowang dynasty, the main content of the dynasty meeting in the early Ming dynasty was not instructed by the emperor to discuss and formulate major policies. Policy or assign tasks to various departments. It may be different from what most people imagine. When Zhu Yuanzhang formulated the Ming Dynasty Council system, his purpose was to solve detailed and specific matters on the spot. Therefore, he actually mainly worked on the prime minister, the chiefs of various government offices, and even the prefects, counties, and ministers. The criminal officer’s matter. That is to say, the affairs of the early dynasty were actually extremely complicated and trivial, covering all aspects of affairs. According to the “Records of Ming Renzong”, the minister of Hongtong Temple said: The story, after looking at the court, there are people who are eager to make machinery and do not face the report, Xu Juti booked in the palace gate, hoping to reach it quickly. Those who complain about private affairs and beggars and benefactors are also included in the topic, to cover up fraud and deceive the public, in order to try to get lucky, bad law and disorderly politics, nothing more than this. In the future, only those who are not allowed to report face-to-face with the police urgently and maintenance, Xu Feng will enter the book, and the public and private matters will be ordered to report to the public. Offenders will be regarded as serious crimes. Still let the three law division know. According to the “Minghuidian” records, in the 28th year of Hongwu, there were 184 “Ensemble Notices” of various government offices, in addition to elections, rations, suggestions, decision of prisoners, opening of yamen and other major events as well as disasters, rain, and the number of prisoners. There are many other things such as “buying cattle and farming tools”, “retrieving the family members of insufficient stolen goods”, and “accepting civil litigation”. Xu Guanqi’s soldiers will play out the secrets of the military and the guarding of the entrance guards, and they will often be sealed off in civil litigation and litigation. There are things guarded by the division, and you must ask one by one. Even the officers guarding the imperial city search and find the stolen property in the palace, they have to be led to the court, and the emperor personally sends it off. It can be said to be extremely annoying. Like the emperor of the Ming Dynasty, sitting at the gate, all the general affairs, regardless of importance, all sorts of personal care, this is unprecedented. This is certainly hard to last. And the ancestral system is not allowed to change, this has actually buried the hidden opportunity for future generations to go to the imaginary story, to exist in name but to die. Especially after the Xuande period, the content of the early dynasty’s decision-making continued to shrink. The upper dynasty was nothing more than worship and salute, and its nature was not much different from that of the Da dynasty and the Synodic dynasties. Finally, because all things must be asked for decree, the government will not work if the decree is not issued, so the emperor must go to court every day. Although the Chang Dynasty system in the Ming Dynasty skipped the Mongol and Yuan Dynasties, it directly borrowed from the Tang and Song systems. However, the “regular ginseng” of the Tang dynasty was divided into five grades of civil servants and above, and the two provinces’ worship officials, supervisory officials, Yuanwailang, and Dr. Taichang’s Japanese ginseng (daily entry into the dynasty), and the number of permanent ginseng officers. Other officials consisted of nine ginseng (1). Moon dynasty nine times), six ginseng (six times dynasty) and four o’clock ginseng (only four dynasties a year), while civil and military officials at the rank of nine and above and the second queen, are only looking forward and looking forward. In other words, in the Han, Tang, Song and other dynasties before the Ming Dynasty, “court officials” and “non-court officials” were clearly defined. However, in the Ming Dynasty, the Chang Dynasty was the duty of most Beijing officials. From Zaifu to Jiupin Xiaoli, and even a small official in Jingcangchang, even a non-influential and miscellaneous official, he had to go to court every day. In fact, in the daily Chang Dynasty of the Ming Dynasty, there were about hundreds to thousands of officials coming to the upper court, and the number was very large. Therefore, when I ordered the “Records of Ming Xianzong” before, I often found a large number of examples of officials failing to succeed. In one case, there were 1118 people! The number of people in the upper dynasty is less than a thousand, can the emperor not see it? It’s the same as the major courses you are taking in the whole college now. Two or three hundred people in the big class, there are twenty or thirty people. Do you fool the teacher as a fool? In July of the 23rd year of Chenghua, Yimao (July 18), there were few officials in the upper court and ordered Jinyiwei and Hongshe Temple to read them according to their family status. Those who did not come to civil and military officers were 1,118 . Play on. Purpose: This generation is not afraid of etiquette, lazy to participate in the court, and should be punished. Regardless of the light, the ash is 5,000 catties for those above the third grade, 3,000 catties for those below the fourth grade, and 1,500 catties for those below the ninth grade. The sick are still checked to smell. The only British public, Zhang Mao, exonerated himself from punishment. After that, Jinyiwei and Honghe Temple were named as sick, cured, and non-ill. The above-mentioned notes are false, but if you are aunts, those who are cured and those who are not sick will all be ashamed as the case. So Xianzong got angry when he finished the dynasty in the early morning. He insisted on ordering Jinyiwei and Honghu Temple to nod their heads according to the roster. As a result, 1118 people were missing. Is this TM done by humans? As a result, all of them were fined for “transportation of ashes”. Afterwards, most of these officials found reasons to say that it was because of “illness.” Who can believe this? 3. The unique features of the Ming Dynasty dynasty compared to the previous Han, Tang and Song dynasties-the low-ranking ministers, the peak of imperial power, the emperor’s monopoly of power. Why the content of the Ming dynasty meeting is complicated and trivial, with a large number of participants, which is very different from the Han, Tang, Song and other dynasties Is it the same? The reason was Zhu Yuanzhang, who wanted to use the court to strengthen the emperor’s power and strengthen the relationship between the lord and the minister. Zhu Yuanzhang’s jealousy, one person taking power alone, was the primary reason for the changes in the early dynasty. During the Han, Tang and Song Dynasties, the prime minister played an important role in the court meeting. Even before the abolition of the prime minister in the early Ming Dynasty, the prime minister was famous. When the prime minister appeared in the court, he was greeted by hundreds of officials, and the scenery was infinite. For example, the poem of Gao Qi’s “Hou Zao Chao” states: “The officials suddenly passed the prime minister’s arrival, and the city of fire was sold like a daylight and cold.” This is a great contrast to the fact that the court minister entered the dynasty only two lights in front of it. With the assistance of the prime minister, the affairs of China and foreign countries must be screened and weighed first. Small matters are self-determined, and the big ones are invited to play, so early affairs are not troublesome. However, the excessive power of the prime minister was something Zhu Yuanzhang could not tolerate, which caused a major change in Chinese political history: the abolition of the prime minister. After the abolition of the phase, the political affairs were scattered in the six departments, and no one had a general outline. Everything must be met by the emperor and then proceeded. So there was no need to urinate and defecate like a tide to the court. What Zhu Yuanzhang worries most is being blinded by his subordinates. Now he sits in front of the hall, and everyone is in front of the imperial court. It seems that this is the only way to avoid being deceived. During the Hongwu period, all seniors, talents, scholars, and Confucian scholars who were called in addition to the officials of the Korean government were ordered to follow the government to observe politics, and the younger officials’ children were also ordered to participate in the court to observe etiquette. At that time, people from all over the world embraced Linbu, and the scene in the early dynasty was extremely spectacular. Zhu Yuanzhang sat at the door, tried essays, and asked about the successes and failures of history and civil politics. Officials who break the law are often blamed face to face.