I recently read a novel. Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism are all for the sake of oneself in the end. I understand the meaning of Buddhism and Taoism for oneself, but what kind of thinking is Confucianism? I only know the great ambition of ruling the country and the world. Can you please tell me if you know?
Confucianism is developing dynamically, so when evaluating it, it is not possible to define Confucianism in terms of the words spoken by a single character. The earliest cornerstone of Confucianism came from the patriarchal system established in the Western Zhou Dynasty. This system was tailor-made to solve the new dynasty of the Western Zhou Dynasty. The patriarchal system combined with the enfeoffment system formed the political rule of the Zhou Dynasty, which was very applicable at the beginning of the Western Zhou Dynasty. However, with the increase and development of social productivity alone, the competition brought about by population growth has begun to become fierce. Once there are too many people and less meat, disputes will inevitably arise. The enfeoffment system began to disintegrate, and the big princes began to swallow the little princes; on the other hand, the original inheritance system was not implemented in the patriarchal system, and the strong were unwilling to decide their own destiny by their status, capable and ambitious. Gradually overstep the patriarchal system. Of course, this historical evolution process was very slow. During this period, it experienced quantitative changes for hundreds of years, until the beginning of qualitative changes in the middle and late Spring and Autumn Period. The Confucian thought in the Confucian period mainly advocated self-denial, restoring propriety, and seeking benevolence. The three major propositions are that Confucius put forward reform ideas from the standpoint of aristocratic rule. His main purpose is to realize the former “peace and prosperity” by restoring and complying with the Western Zhou system. Confucius is a politician, he is not a saint to be sacred and unoffended by later generations. This must be kept in mind. Reading the words of Confucius carefully, he basically revolved around the self-denial, the restoration of rituals and the seeking of benevolence. First of all, you must restrain your own desires that you shouldn’t have, insist on honoring the Zhou rituals, and pursuing higher morals. This is Confucianism of Confucius. As a politician, Confucius has no mercy against political opponents, and kills those who deserve to be killed. Killing the Qi National Song and Dance Troupe is also for the benefit of his own Lu State. He praised Guan Zhong for saving the Chinese civilization. Confucius resolutely opposed the following crimes, especially rebellion, and resolutely did not allow it. When he arrived at Mencius, he was very different from Confucius. Mencius sublimated Confucianism from political doctrine to humanistic doctrine. Mencius represented the civilian class. All of Mencius’s remarks were scolding the rulers at that time for not caring about the world and the people’s livelihood. Mencius, except for not daring to confuse Confucius, will confuse everyone. In the eyes of Mencius, Guan Zhong is a fart. Mencius even warned the monarch that the monarch is unkind and the people can be unrighteous, which is tantamount to openly challenging the ruler. The difference between Confucianism and Mencius is also based on the difference of the times. Mencius was from the Warring States period. He lived in a time when humanity was more awakened and social contradictions were greater. The people were demanding the right to survive and hoped that there would be no war. Then Xunzi further developed Confucianism. The restoration of Zhou rituals was a reversal of history, but it was necessary to observe the new ritual system. Xunzi was not known to ordinary people like Mencius. Although Mencius spoke on behalf of ordinary people, he had no political ability. Xunzi did. Xunzi’s Confucianism is to keep pace with the times, and to adhere to the humanistic aspirations of practicing Confucianism, but also to give consideration to political rule. Many people don’t understand that Xunzi, as a Confucianist, could have two disciples of the Fa school. In fact, the thoughts of the various schools of thought are interlinked, but they have different emphasis. Many Confucianism and legalism are interlinked, and the conflict is only in the supervision of rights. Confucianism still follows a hierarchy of privileges, while legalists treat them equally. The biggest reason why legalism was slandered by later generations was that there were many nobles and nobles between the monarch and the common people who were privileged, and this part of the rights was directly obliterated by the legalists. It is easy to understand the country as a company. The Confucian management model is a privileged level, and the officials at the top level crush people to death. Legalists mean that everyone except the boss is under the supervision of the law. The officials have different functions and different salaries, but they cannot exceed their powers. Legalists advocate the supervision of the whole people. Therefore, the legal reforms in various countries ultimately choose the legalists. It is only Qin. The reform of the country is only the bottom line. As for the slander of the Legalists for aggression, it is extremely ridiculous. Since ancient times, the development of human civilization has been based on the weak and the strong. Throwing this kind of pot to the Legalists? When Confucianism entered the Han Dynasty, especially during the period of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, the monarch needed a doctrine to stabilize his rule, and the aristocracy also needed a doctrine to maintain their privileges. Then only Confucianism was the most suitable for the philosophers. That’s why it was possible to ban a hundred schools of Confucianism. At this time, Confucianism began to tailor, optimize, and modify various doctrines for this kind of co-governance between the emperor and the ministers. Since Han Confucianism, Confucianism has long been different from pre-Qin Confucianism. They served their own interest groups. I’m just a brief statement here. If you want a detailed argument, you can read my column to let you know the real philosophers.