On January 2, 1987, in the northern desert of Chad, the Libyan armored unit with T55 tanks was defeated by the Chadian National Army, which drove Toyota pickup trucks and used anti-tank missiles. According to US statistics, 7,500 soldiers on the Libyan side were killed and military facilities worth 1.5 billion yuan were destroyed or captured. The history of this battle is called the “Toyota War”, and the commander of the Chadian side is Idris Deby. Chad is located in central Africa and borders Libya, Sudan, Niger and other countries. With an area of 1.28 million square kilometers and a population of 16 million, the per capita GDP in 2019 was only US$710, making it one of the least developed countries in the world. In the 9th century AD, the northern nomads who believed in Islam entered the Chad region, conquered the local indigenous people, and established several feudal kingdoms. In 1896, the Sudanese Rabah Zubair unified the Central African region, including Chad. But at this time Britain, France, Germany and other countries were ready to carve up Central Africa. In 1900, Rabah Zubair was defeated and killed, and Chad became a French colony. The French forced the Chadians to produce cotton on a large scale, but the construction and governance of the local area was about zero. Since Chad became independent in 1960, he has faced serious internal conflicts and external interference. Internal conflicts are mainly between the northern tribes of Arab descent who believe in Islam and the southern tribes who believe in Christianity and indigenous religions. The main external interference was France, and later Arab neighbors led by Libya were added. The first president, Tom Babaye, was a puritan from the southern tribes. He brutally suppressed the northern tribes and led to civil war. In 1975, Felix Malum, the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, who was also from the southern tribe, launched a coup to kill Tom Babaye. In order to obtain the support of the northern tribes, Malum appointed Hussein Habré as prime minister. However, due to political discord between the two sides, they finally met each other in battle. In February 1979, Habré defeated Malum, but soon he clashed with Libya-backed Gukuni Vedai. The armed forces of both sides broke out in a full-scale civil war in March 1980. With the support of the United States and France, Habré defeated Wei Dai in June 1982, and defeated the Libyan army in the Toyota War in 1987, finally securing the presidential throne. However, in 1989 Habré clashed with Idris Deby, the commander-in-chief of his armed forces. On November 10, 1990, Deby’s army invaded the capital N’Djamena, and Habré fled Senegal. On May 30, 2016, Habré was sentenced to life imprisonment by the African Special Court in Senegal for crimes against humanity and war crimes. Idris Deby was born in the northern tribe. He was originally a professional pilot trained in France. After returning to his country, he worked in the Chad military for many years. He has made great achievements. It can be said that he is the final winner of the 30-year civil war in Chad. He has been re-elected five times since he became president in 1991, and finally died the day after his sixth successful re-election (he was reportedly inspecting the front lines of the Chadian army to encircle and suppress the rebels). Deby is a typical tribal warlord, and there is no shortage of corruption to suppress dissidents. During his 30-year rule, Chad’s infrastructure construction was extremely slow, most of its oil revenue was seized by American companies and French banks, and the people were always struggling with absolute poverty. However, compared with several of his predecessors, he at least provided a relatively stable political order. After his death, it may be difficult for his son to control the situation, and the whole country is likely to fall into an endless civil war again. Extension 1: Gaddafi of Libya warned former British Prime Minister Tony Blair on the phone that if he loses power, terrorist groups will rise in the Middle East and will inevitably attack Europe. He is not talking nonsense. Since the Libyan War in 2011, terrorist organizations in the Sahel region have continued to grow. They obtained weapons and supplies from war-torn Libya, and attacked the young and middle-aged population, posing a serious threat to the peace and stability of Central and West Africa. Idris Deby is an important ally of France in the Sahel, and his death will undoubtedly bring opportunities to local terrorist organizations. Extension 2: In addition to civil war and terrorism, Chad’s water resources problem is also very serious. Since 1963, the water area of Lake Chad has shrunk at an alarming rate. The water shortage problem may trigger a humanitarian disaster in Chad in the future. Extension 3: my country’s PetroChina and other related companies have invested a lot in Chad. The turmoil in Chad is undoubtedly detrimental to Chinese companies. It is hoped that the country can take practical measures to ensure the personal safety of our personnel.