First of all, I will post a very interesting study to everyone. This is a paper published in Nature Communications by Professor Wang Weiqing’s team from Ruijin Hospital in 2017: Benign thyroid nodules, especially adenoid nodules, are one of the most common hyperplastic lesions. There are few studies on its genomics changes. Here, we show all exon sequences and/or transcript sequencing data of adenoid nodules with or without papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). BRAF (22/32) somatic mutations were only detected in PTC, while mutations in SPOP (4/38), ZNF148 (6/38) and EZH1 (3/38) were abundant in adenomatous nodules. In a mutually exclusive SPOPP94R with an expanded adenomatous nodule (n=259), EZH1Q571R and ZNF148 mutations were identified in 24.3%. Adenomatous nodules and their concurrent PTC showed very few overlapping mutations and different gene expression patterns. Phylogenetic tree analysis found that PTC evolved independently of its matched benign nodules. Our findings reveal that benign nodules have unique molecular characteristics that are different from PTC, and provide genomic evidence for the traditional view that PTC and benign nodules have independent origins. (Lazy, Baidu machine translated) The conclusion of this paper is simply that benign thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer (here, papillary cancer) are completely unrelated in genetic evolution! Thyroid cancer is not transformed from benign nodules as everyone thinks! Benign is benign, and malignant is malignant. With the background of this article, if a thyroid nodule is found, we only need to figure out two things clinically: 1. The size of the nodule; 2. The benign and malignant nodule. The former is very simple, just an ultrasound measurement. The latter is relatively complicated, and it is recommended to find an experienced ultrasound doctor. Yes, you must have experience. A reliable ultrasound doctor is much better than any senior surgeon in identifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The ultrasound doctor will give a preference opinion based on the image of the thyroid gland, which is the so-called TI-RADS classification. This classification is equivalent to looking at the face. For example, when I see a person walking on the road, how can I tell if he is a good person or a bad person? Under ultrasound, if this nodule looks like a good person, it must be a good person. But if there is a nodule, oh, his face is full of scars, 1 point; if he pulls the coffin on his back, 1 point is added; and his expression is fierce, another point is added. Well, it looks almost like a bad guy. But no matter how many malignant “faces” under the ultrasound, it does not necessarily mean that he is a bad person. Maybe he is a good man who cares for his family. For example, the eldest brother below: If the ultrasound doctor suspects that the thyroid nodule may be malignant, the next step will be a thyroid gland. Needle puncture, take a little cell test to see if it is a good person or a bad person~ In the end, as long as it is: 1 benign and 2 small thyroid nodules, you can just leave it there, just follow up regularly!