First of all, I will post a very interesting study to everyone. This is a paper published in Nature Communications by Professor Wang Weiqing’s team from Ruijin Hospital in 2017: Benign thyroid nodules, especially adenoid nodules, are one of the most common hyperplastic lesions. There are few studies on its genomics changes. Here, we show all exon sequences and/or transcript sequencing data of adenoid nodules with or without papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). BRAF (22/32) somatic mutations were only detected in PTC, while mutations in SPOP (4/38), ZNF148 (6/38) and EZH1 (3/38) were abundant in adenomatous nodules. In a mutually exclusive SPOPP94R with an expanded adenomatous nodule (n=259), EZH1Q571R and ZNF148 mutations were identified in 24.3%. Adenomatous nodules and their concurrent PTC showed very few overlapping mutations and different gene expression patterns. Phylogenetic tree analysis found that PTC evolved independently of its matched benign nodules. Our findings reveal that benign nodules have unique molecular characteristics that are different from PTC, and provide genomic evidence for the traditional view that PTC and benign nodules have independent origins. (Lazy, Baidu machine translated) The conclusion of this paper is simply that benign thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer (here, papillary cancer) are completely unrelated in genetic evolution! Thyroid cancer is not transformed from benign nodules as everyone thinks! Benign is benign, and malignant is malignant. With the background of this article, if a thyroid nodule is found, we only need to figure out two things clinically: 1. The size of the nodule; 2. The benign and malignant nodule. The former is very simple, just an ultrasound measurement. The latter is relatively complicated, and it is recommended to find an experienced ultrasound doctor. Yes, you must have experience. A reliable ultrasound doctor is much better than any senior surgeon in identifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The ultrasound doctor will give a preference opinion based on the image of the thyroid gland, which is the so-called TI-RADS classification. This classification is equivalent to looking at the face. For example, when I see a person walking on the road, how can I tell if he is a good person or a bad person? Under ultrasound, if this nodule looks like a good person, it must be a good person. But if there is a nodule, oh, his face is full of scars, 1 point; if he pulls the coffin on his back, 1 point is added; and his expression is fierce, another point is added. Well, it looks almost like a bad guy. But no matter how many malignant “faces” under the ultrasound, it does not necessarily mean that he is a bad person. Maybe he is a good man who cares for his family. For example, the eldest brother below: If the ultrasound doctor suspects that the thyroid nodule may be malignant, the next step will be a thyroid gland. Needle puncture, take a little cell test to see if it is a good person or a bad person~ In the end, as long as it is: 1 benign and 2 small thyroid nodules, you can just leave it there, just follow up regularly!


By zhiwo

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6 months ago

This is a very good question. In academic terms, it is “what type of thyroid nodules can be observed and followed up”, which should be classified according to factors such as benign and malignant nodules, size, etc. First of all, clarify the problem of the subject. If you do not have thyroid nodules, it will basically continue to exist and gradually develop, and it is almost impossible to disappear on its own. So next is the focus of today, which nodules can be observed and which cannot be observed? 1. Observable nodules 1. Color Doppler ultrasound shows that the possibility of benign is higher / nodules that are diagnosed as benign by puncture and are less than 2 cm in diameter. 2. Color Doppler ultrasound shows a higher possibility of malignancy, and is relatively inclined to papillary thyroid carcinoma/Papillary thyroid carcinoma confirmed by puncture; and the diameter is less than 1 cm; not close to the capsule, nerves, trachea, and not found in the neck Obviously enlarged nodules of lymph nodes. 2. Unobservable nodules 1. Color Doppler ultrasound shows a higher possibility of malignancy, and is relatively prone to papillary thyroid cancer/papillary thyroid cancer diagnosed by puncture, and does not meet the conditions described in “1, 2” . 2. Color Doppler ultrasound shows that the possibility of malignancy is higher, and the type is relatively prone to thyroid follicular carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma/puncture, or other high-precision examinations to diagnose thyroid follicular carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma Nodules. 3. Color Doppler ultrasound shows a higher possibility of benign/nodule that is diagnosed as benign by puncture, but with a diameter of more than 2 cm. 4. Color Doppler ultrasound shows a high possibility of benign/the puncture diagnosed as benign, and the diameter is also less than 2 cm, but there is obvious tracheal compression, and the patient has nodules with symptoms of dyspnea. Roughly speaking, it can be summarized as the above types. In actual diagnosis and treatment, there are many other factors that affect the treatment strategy of thyroid nodules. If the treated nodule is not treated, it will definitely continue to evolve. The benign ones may grow and compress the trachea, causing breathing difficulties and even suffocation; the malignant ones may gradually invade the capsule, lymph node metastasis, and even distant organ metastasis, and the severe ones may be life-threatening. Therefore, if you find a thyroid nodule, you must go to a regular tertiary hospital to find a professional doctor for evaluation, and don’t make your own judgment.

6 months ago

As soon as many people get the physical examination report, they see the five words “thyroid nodule” and they are “square”. “I’m in good health. I don’t feel anything at all on weekdays. Why did thyroid nodules grow?” Will thyroid nodules become cancerous? Do you need treatment? Today, Xiao Nan unveiled the mystery of thyroid nodules. What is a thyroid nodule? The thyroid gland looks like a butterfly and grows in the middle of the neck. It relies on the secretion of thyroxine to control the speed of energy use, produce protein, and regulate the body’s sensitivity to other hormones. Thyroid nodules are lumps that appear in the thyroid. It is a relatively common thyroid disease. There are no obvious symptoms in the early stage. It can be single or multiple. The incidence of multiple nodules is high, and the cancer rate of single nodules is relatively high under certain environmental stimuli. What are the causes of thyroid sarcoidosis? At present, the cause of thyroid nodules is not clear, but it is related to the following factors: insufficient iodine intake. Iodine element plays a key role in the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones. Studies have shown that insufficient intake of iodine in the body may cause abnormal thyroid hormone levels and cause thyroid nodules. Long-term exposure to ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation is one of the risk factors for the formation and canceration of thyroid nodules. People who work in a radioactive environment for a long time are more likely to suffer from thyroid nodules. Excessive stress, nervousness, lack of sleep, staying up late for a long time. Modern people work under a lot of pressure, their spirits are in a state of tension for a long time, coupled with the bad habits of staying asleep at night, over time, the body’s endocrine disorders appear, and then thyroid nodules appear. Regular consumption of substances that cause goiter. Some foods containing thiourea, such as radishes, can cause goiter; soybeans and cabbage also contain certain substances that can prevent the synthesis of thyroid hormones and cause goiter; minerals such as calcium, magnesium, and zinc in the soil and drinking water can also cause goiters. Causes goiter. Some drugs such as drugs such as potassium thiocyanide and potassium perchlorate can also cause goiter. genetic factors. Studies have shown that genetic enzyme defects can cause hormone synthesis disorders and affect the synthesis of thyroxine. Do thyroid nodules need treatment? How to treat? Physical examination finds thyroid nodules, first of all, it is necessary to determine whether the nature of the nodules is benign or malignant. Most thyroid nodules are benign, accounting for about 85%-95%. In this case, just pay attention to observation and regular review. Thyroid nodules are less likely to transform into thyroid cancer, and differentiated thyroid cancer can basically be cured in the early stage. In the physical examination results, many people showed that the diameter of thyroid nodules was less than 1cm, and the B-ultrasound showed regular morphology, clear borders, and no small calcifications… the thyroid function was normal. Regarding such results, you can rest assured that you need to review it every 6-12 months. If you feel unwell, please consult a doctor in time. For thyroid nodules with other B-ultrasound results, you need to ask a professional doctor for targeted treatment. It is worth noting that malignant thyroid nodules do not depend on the size of the nodule, but on its nature. Malignant thyroid nodules often have the following B-ultrasound displays: the nodules are hypoechoic, irregular in shape, unclear borders, multiple internal calcifications, aspect ratios greater than 1, rich internal blood flow, rapid growth, etc. Through early surgery and other treatments, most of them can “cut the grass and eliminate the roots.” How to prevent thyroid nodules? 1. Control the intake of iodine content. Adult men’s intake is between 120-165 micrograms and women’s intake is between 100-115 micrograms. Urine iodine can be measured to determine whether the body is iodine-deficient. 2. Exercise exercise Persist in exercise exercise, improve immunity and strengthen physical fitness. 3. Minimize exposure to the radioactive environment. People working in the radioactive environment should take protective measures to control working hours and reduce the impact of radiation on the body.

6 months ago

The appearance of thyroid nodules indicates that the thyroid has issued a warning. It may be because of smoking, drinking, staying up late, mood, obesity, etc., that the thyroid has inflammation or compensatory hyperplasia, which suggests that we need to pay more attention to the thyroid and make some changes to the possible development of thyroid nodules. 1. Impact Thyroid function: Many thyroid nodules can interfere with the synthesis and secretion of thyroxine, thereby affecting the normal function of the thyroid gland, causing hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, showing some endocrine, gastrointestinal, cardiac, and metabolic problems. If the thyroid nodule is associated with hyperthyroidism, it may usually have: excessive sweating, mood swings, heart palpitations, hyperappetite, weight loss, etc.; if the thyroid nodule is associated with hypothyroidism, it may usually have: more cold, prone to weakness, fatigue, Indifferent expression, decreased appetite, constipation, etc. 2. The nodules that affect swallowing, vocalization and aesthetics continue to grow, which may compress the esophagus, trachea, recurrent laryngeal nerve, etc., making swallowing and breathing difficult, and the voice becomes hoarse; if it grows downwards, it forms a retrosternal thyroid nodule. It is also easy to compress the trachea; if it grows to protrude more obviously, it will also affect the appearance. 3. From benign to malignant, if the nodule has signs of calcification, blood supply and other pathological changes, or turns into a malignant nodule, surgery is often required. Depending on the specific situation, other treatments may be supplemented after surgery. Prognosis, in some cases, it may be necessary to take medicine for life, but also to prevent recurrence. Therefore, if thyroid nodules are left unchecked, there will be a lot of risks. It is better to check regularly to keep the development within a controllable range as much as possible. Thyroid nodules, not necessarily serious thyroid nodules, may just be a yellow card warning given by the body. Because the accuracy of the current detection method is improved, nodules can be found in the early stage. Although there is still the possibility of malignancy, 95% of nodules are benign. But there are nodules, it is difficult to disappear by themselves. If the nodule is found by hand examination, do a color Doppler ultrasound to clarify the nature. If it is benign, it may not require treatment. Usually the doctor will recommend regular follow-up review. If treatment is needed, actively cooperate with the doctor and treat as early as possible to avoid some subsequent progress as much as possible.

6 months ago

From the data experience of the employee group medical insurance and health check-up services that serve more than 350 companies, Mr. Insurance found that: every year when the company organizes the employee health check, a large number of employees will be checked out: thyroid nodules. Thyroid nodules seem to be a minor disease because it neither affects our lives nor our physical condition. Sometimes it even feels that it is not a disease at all; this time, the insurance gentleman starts from his own industry and shares some thyroid nodules. Science popularization of thyroid and thyroid cancer. 1. What is the disease of thyroid nodules? Thyroid nodules refer to lumps in the thyroid that will move up and down with the thyroid with swallowing movements. It is more common in our lives. Among thyroid nodules, about 95% are benign and about 5% are malignant. Common diseases of the thyroid include: simple goiter with nodules, nodular goiter, thyroiditis, thyroid tumors, thyroid cysts, and thyroid cancer. Thyroid nodules have a high incidence in women and middle-aged and elderly people, but most benign nodules are not harmful to the body; the incidence is low in men and adolescents, but most of them are malignant nodules. Thyroid nodules have a high risk of causing thyroid cancer. However, thyroid cancer is called “carcinoma-like” in the medical profession. Nowadays, medical treatment is advanced. Thyroid cancer can be detected at an early stage. The cost of early treatment is low, usually around 50,000 yuan. The cure rate is high, and the recurrence rate is also very low. Like the familiar stars, Olympic champion Wang Nan and Hong Kong star Wang Mingquan have both suffered from thyroid cancer and then recovered. 2. Thyroid cancer, the amount of insurance compensation reduced. A survey conducted by the National Cancer Center in 2019 showed that thyroid cancer has become the fastest-growing malignant tumor in the past ten years, and it has also soared to the fourth place among the cancers that are likely to occur in women. With high morbidity, the insurance company’s compensation costs will naturally go up. Therefore, in the new critical illness insurance starting on February 1, 2021, insurance companies began to pay for thyroid cancer grading. The emphasis here is “graded payment”, which does not mean no compensation. “Graded payment” means that different payment standards are adopted according to the different degrees and grades of thyroid cancer. For example: TNM staging of thyroid cancer above stage I, pay 100% of the insurance amount as critical illness; TNM stage I thyroid cancer, pay 30% of the insurance amount. For the majority of insurance consumers, after suffering from thyroid cancer, the claim payment received has decreased.

6 months ago

If you don’t care, it may grow and slowly grow larger. I just found a thyroid nodule, grade 3, and got a puncture. The doctor still said that one puncture can’t be completely benign. It’s okay. It takes multiple punctures to be sure, but I have also checked many other people’s sentiments. In a similar situation, it is also said that the puncture may activate something, which means that it is not very good. I gave up and had a physical examination every six months. Perhaps after nearly two years, I found that I grew up slowly. It was obvious from the front and side. I swallowed a little bit unclearly, and I wanted to keep swallowing, and I felt unclear. When I was lying down, I still pressed the esophagus. I felt uncomfortable and uncomfortable anyway. In fact, the doctor in the middle prescribed a bunch of medicines, took them, and went to other hospitals to see them. Another hospital said that there was no need to take those medicines. To the effect that taking them would not change anything, I said that apart from regular review, Can it be ignored if there is no major change? The doctor said that people change, and who can guarantee that it will not change, and no doctor can guarantee anything. It was really frustrating at the time. The days are still going to pass. I said in my mind, let’s just leave it alone, and keep searching for articles about thyroid nodules. I don’t know what to do. There is a risk of surgery. Some say you will take medicine for a lifetime, some say you will become weaker Wait. I happened to see that I was treated with Chinese medicine, and then I often paid attention to this kind of information. I also made a lot of notes. Try it for yourself. A very simple recipe. I drank it for about a month and a half, although I haven’t checked it yet. The nodules are smaller and swallowing is more comfortable. There are many friends on Zhihu who have similar situations, and I don’t know if it is appropriate or inappropriate. It’s just a little bit of my own feeling.

6 months ago

Hello, it is recommended to pay attention to the discovery of thyroid nodules and do not ignore it. Although most of the thyroid nodules are benign lesions, they may gradually increase and compress the trachea and esophagus, thereby causing malignant changes. Therefore, if it is the initial stage, follow-up observation and regular re-examination can be performed to observe changes in the size of thyroid nodules. The most important thing about thyroid nodules is early detection and early treatment. However, if a thyroid nodule is found to ignore it, it may delay the effective time of nodule treatment. Severe cases will cause the following hazards: 1. Affect the daily life. Thyroid patients have symptoms such as palpitation, insomnia, dreaminess, fatigue, etc., which affect daily life for a long time. In severe cases, eye diseases such as protrusion of the eye and loose eyelids can be caused. 2. Affecting emotional state Thyroid patients are upset, irritable, and moody. They often show tantrums and quarrel with others easily. Third, cause some complications. If the nodule is too large, it may cause symptoms of pressure such as dysphagia, suffocation, hoarseness and so on. Therefore, if there is a thyroid nodule, it must be reviewed regularly, even if it is benign; if it is malignant, it needs timely treatment.

6 months ago

Those who find thyroid nodules should be checked:    First, thyroid nodules are usually found because of physical examination of thyroid color Doppler ultrasound. If there are only multiple thyroid nodules, and they are relatively small and do not have any symptoms of compression, only do thyroid color Doppler ultrasound can also be recommended at the same time Take blood to check thyroid function and thyroid antibodies. Simple thyroid sarcoidosis does not require treatment. If the thyroid nodules are significantly enlarged, accompanied by symptoms of compression, coughing, hoarseness, or thyroid nodules with calcification, unclear borders, and aspect ratios greater than one.   Need to do ultrasound examination, according to the volume, quantity and shape to determine the treatment plan. Thyroid nodules are a common phenomenon, most people will have thyroid nodules, but in most cases thyroid nodules are benign, so don’t worry. There are two types of thyroid nodules: multiple and single. It is clinically believed that multiple nodules are more likely to be benign, while single nodules are more likely to have lesions. In order to avoid malignant lesions, it is recommended that patients with thyroid nodules should go to the hospital for ultrasound examination and check thyroid function in time. If the number of thyroid nodules is small, the volume does not exceed 4cm and does not bring any impact on the body, surgical resection is not necessary, and the main reason is to maintain observation and do regular review. If the volume exceeds 4cm, surgical resection is recommended to avoid excessively large nodules from compressing the surrounding tissues, causing swallowing disorders or breathing difficulties. In addition, too large nodules may have lesions, and pathological examinations are required. Benign nodules will have no effect on the body after normal surgery; if it is a malignant tumor, further treatment is required after surgery, otherwise the malignant tumor will have a great impact on health. . Reminder: Regular physical examination can effectively detect and prevent health problems.

6 months ago

If the thyroid nodule is not treated, there will be two consequences: first, if the nodule is benign, it has not changed significantly and may be carried for life; second, the nodule has become malignant. Benign thyroid nodules do not need to be treated, because they basically do not affect people’s normal life and are painless, but they need regular observation. If the thyroid nodules increase abnormally during follow-up, or increase rapidly, surgical treatment is required. Because there are some thyroid nodules that are benign at the beginning, if they have not been re-examined, and the nodules may have been malignant when they are checked again a few years later, then surgical treatment is needed, otherwise it will affect people’s lives. Thyroid nodules generally refer to masses in the thyroid that can move up and down with the thyroid with swallowing movements. It is a common clinical disease and can be caused by a variety of causes. There are many kinds of thyroid diseases in clinic, such as thyroid degeneration, inflammation, autoimmunity and new organisms, etc., which can be manifested as nodules. Thyroid nodules can be single or multiple. Multiple nodules have a higher incidence than single nodules, but single nodules have a higher incidence of thyroid cancer. Thyroid nodules are generally related to the following types of factors: 1. Genetic factors In fact, many diseases have certain inheritance. If there are more people suffering from thyroid nodules in the family, then the probability of us suffering from thyroid nodules will also be Gradually increase. This situation cannot be changed artificially. You can only take good care of your body’s health in your daily life and perform regular physical examinations in accordance with the doctor’s instructions. 2. Short-tempered and irritable. If a person is very short-tempered in daily life, he will get furious when encountering a little incident. This will also seriously affect the health of various internal organs of the body and greatly increase the risk of thyroid nodules. The odds. Therefore, for physical health, you must learn to control your emotions in your daily life, avoid violent tempers, face everything with an optimistic and cheerful mood every day, and your body will be healthier. 3. Medical staff or staff who are often in a radioactive environment for a long time living in a radioactive environment may have a higher probability of suffering from thyroid nodules than ordinary people, because the radiation emitted has great radiation to the body, and the body is different. The function of internal organs will gradually weaken, which will greatly increase the probability of suffering from various diseases. If you suffer from a thyroid nodule, the most obvious manifestation is that the neck becomes noticeably thicker. If you find an obvious bulge in your neck, don’t be nervous and afraid, but also hope you don’t ignore it and go to the hospital for related examination and treatment in time.

6 months ago

Why don’t you care about it! If it grows in your own body, you have to take care of it. Do a B-ultrasound once or twice a year to observe whether it is small and whether there are calcification points in its shape. If there are none, continue to observe! B-ultrasound must be done every year! Nodules are not a big deal either! Relax and be happy every day! Don’t think too much about it, it’s generally fine!

6 months ago

The need for treatment of thyroid nodules depends on these things. Statistics show that 60 to 70% of Chinese people can detect thyroid nodules. In other words, 3 out of 5 Chinese people have thyroid nodules. Some people get panicked when they get a physical examination report, “Can you get cancer?” Others disagree: “Doesn’t it mean you have a tumor!” Then, what is the correct way to deal with thyroid nodules and do they need treatment? Let Honghao Li, chief physician of the Department of Breast Oncology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, tell you the standard answer: Under what circumstances does nodular goiter need surgery?’s video 40 Play Usually, it is nodular goiter that needs to be treated! Goiter is actually a disease that evolves after the thyroid nodules slowly degenerate, such as simple goiter and nodular goiter. Simple goiter is a diffuse enlargement of the entire thyroid gland, often due to some metabolic needs. For example, during the growth and development of adolescence, simple goiter is prone to occur due to the need for growth; there is also a kind of iodine deficiency like the previous difficult period, especially the so-called big neck disease in mountainous areas, which is also related to iodine deficiency. Simple goiter is rare now, because the country also pays attention to iodine supplementation and the salt we eat is iodized salt, so simple goiter is rare. Nowadays, nodular goiter is more common, that is, there are many follicles in the thyroid, which gradually grow up and form nodules. Strictly speaking, this is not called a disease, but it is indeed common. If nodular goiter can be diagnosed clearly, for example, if the diagnosis is benign, then most patients only need to be observed, not special treatment. For example, the nodules are relatively small, usually less than 3 cm, and sometimes can even be increased to less than 4 cm. There is no symptom of compression. Considering the location, as long as it is not on the back of the chest, surgery is not necessary in these cases. In what circumstances should surgery be done? ① The nodule is very large, exceeding four centimeters; or because the nodule is relatively large, there are symptoms of compression, such as compression of the trachea, or compression of the nerve, resulting in a change in voice. The other is a huge nodule with a relatively large neck, which can affect life, study or work in appearance. It looks weird when a girl suddenly grows a neck. ② In another case, if the goiter is accompanied by secondary hyperthyroidism, or even some nodules are suspected of malignant transformation, surgical treatment may be required in these cases.

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