Arbutin, actually looks pretty cute. For whitening, arbutin is also a small expert. Arbutin is 4-hydroxyphenyl-D-glucopyranoside, also known as arbutin and arbutin. In addition to anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antitussive, expectorant, anti-asthmatic and other pharmacological effects, arbutin is also an inhibitor of tyrosinase in human melanocytes. Arbutin can effectively inhibit organisms in the skin. Tyrosinase activity blocks the formation of melanin, and accelerates the decomposition and excretion of melanin through its direct combination with tyrosinase, thereby reducing skin pigmentation and removing stains and freckles. Because arbutin has a good whitening effect and minimal side effects, it is widely added to whitening cosmetics. However, due to the few natural extract sources of arbutin, numerous extraction steps, and low yield, most of the commercially available arbutin is converted from hydroquinone. Hydroquinone has great toxic and side effects. Long-term use can cause exogenous chloasma and leukoplakia of the skin. It can also cause skin toxicity, carcinogenicity, genetic toxicity, etc. Arbutin contains residual hydroquinone or hydroquinone decomposed into arbutin will cause harm to the human body, so the safety issue is also worthy of attention. Arbutin inhibits tyrosinase activity There are actually many members of the arbutin family. Currently known arbutins are α-arbutin, β-arbutin and deoxyarbutin. α-Arbutin and deoxyarbutin are generally obtained by synthetic methods, while β-arbutin can be isolated from a variety of plants, such as the leaves of the thick-leaved rock cabbage, black rice tree, bearberry and pear tree. Β-Arbutin has been discovered successively, its chemical name is 4-hydroxyphenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside. α-Arbutin is an epimer of β-arbutin, its chemical name is 4-hydroxyphenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside, and its glycosidic bond is in the same direction as β-arbutin in space. The opposite is true for glycosides. Deoxyarbutin was first mentioned in Hamd’s doctoral dissertation in 2004, and its chemical name is 4-[(2-tetrahydropyran)oxy]phenol. In recent years, they have received extensive attention from the international medical beauty industry because they have been found to have good whitening effects. The structural formulas of the three kinds of arbutin are as follows: In these cute little ones, deoxyarbutin can reversibly inhibit the activity of tyrosinase, which can obviously block the formation of melanin in the skin. In the skin test of nude mice and guinea pigs, deoxyarbutin can effectively inhibit tyrosinase in the skin tissues, quickly and effectively make the skin white, and when the ingredient is stopped, the effect can still be maintained close In 8 weeks, its efficacy is even 10 times that of hydroquinone, 350 times that of β-arbutin, and 38.5 times that of the currently popular α-arbutin. According to the test results of human skin melanocytes, the safe concentration of using deoxyarbutin is more than 4 times that of hydroquinone when 95% of the cells are alive. From this point of view, deoxyarbutin actually has the strongest whitening ability.